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'''Alexandrov''' (''Александров'') is a city in the north-western part of [[Vladimir Oblast]]. The location is known as a medieval residence of Russian princes. It was home to several important events in russian history. Presently, the residence is transformed into a convent and preserves noteworthy architectural sights, while the city itself is quite unremarkable.
 
 
==Understand==
 
===Geography===
 
Alexandrov is located on the eastern edge of ''Klin-Dmitrov ridge'', a series of hills lying north from [[Moscow]]. The city stands on the banks of the tiny river Seraya, the left tributary of the Sherna that further flows into the Klyazma. The area near Alexandrov is very typical for the central part of Russia: it is a nearly flat land with vast forests and small fields. Alexandrov is an important transport hub, the crossing of the principal [[Moscow]]–[[Yaroslavl]] railway and the circular railway line around [[Moscow]] (the so-called ''Big Ring of Moscow Railway''). The M8 highway runs 25 km west from the city. A number of local roads pass through Alexandrov and offer connections to [[Kirzhach]], [[Kol'chugino]], [[Yuryev-Polsky]], and to the cities of [[Moscow Oblast]]. The population of Alexandrov is 63 thousand (2008).
 
 
===History===
 
[[Image:Alexandrov-sloboda.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Alexandrova Sloboda with the Cathedral of St. Trinity and the hip-roof bell-tower of the Crucifixion]]
 
The settlement of Alexandrov is known since 14th century. However, the official foundation date is 1513, when Vasili III, the Grand Prince of Moscow, built a residence, fortifications, and first stone churches on the banks of the river Seraya. At that time, the settlement was known as ''Alexandrova sloboda'' or ''Alexandrovskaya sloboda'', which means that it was an independent community exempt from taxes and duties. In 1564, Ivan the Terrible, the son and the successor of Vasili III, made Alexandrov his permanent residence. He suffered from defeats in the war with Lithuania and felt constant fear of treason. Then, he decided to leave Moscow and to escape from the nobility in Alexandrov. Alexandrov shortly became the actual center of the country: for example, one of the first printing factories appeared here in 1568. However, some negative things appeared as well. To protect himself, Ivan the Terrible organized a special army called ''oprichnina''. This army had superior rights and did not hesitate to rob and murder others (first of all, nobility and merchants). This made Alexandrov a strange and sorrowful place where Ivan the Terrible combined orthodoxal religiousness with the savageness and depravity. The fluorish of Alexandrov lasted for 17 years, until 1581. In the fall of 1581, Ivan the Terrible killed his son (this accident is shown in the well-known painting by Ilya Repin) and left Alexandrov forever. The town rapidly decayed and also suffered from Polish army during the Time of Troubles (1598–1613). In 1654, the former residence was transformed into a convent and later used as a place of exile. Alexandrov is oficially considered a town since 1778. It gained the regular rectangular layout and later (1870) hosted the [[Moscow]]–[[Yaroslavl]] railway. In 20th century, Alexandrov was strongly industrialized and lost nearly all of its original buildings. The industry of the city includes the production of electronics (e.g., TV sets of the well-known ''Rekord'' brand), crystals and diamonds, textile, and alcohol.
 
 
===Orientation===
 
As you arrive to the train/bus station of Alexandrov, you will find yourself on a large square, ''Komsomol'skaya ploschad'' ('''Комсомольская площадь'''). The street running perpendicular to the railway tracks is called ''ulitsa Lenina'' ('''улица Ленина'''). It will lead you through the central part of the city and finally bring you to another square, ''Sovetskaya ploschad'' ('''Советская площадь''') with the easily recognizable Cathedral of the Nativity on it. Here the street changes its name to ''Sovetskaya ulitsa'' ('''Советская улица'''), runs downhill, crosses the river, and comes to the convent – the old Alexandrova sloboda. Following the same street after the convent, you will start a way east to [[Kol'chugino]] and [[Yuryev-Polsky]].
 
 
Another important street is ''Krasnyi pereulok'' ('''Красный переулок''') that runs perpendicular to ulitsa Lenina. You will get to this street from the north while arriving by car from the M8 highway (from [[Moscow]], [[Yaroslavl]], and many other destinations). Following the same street in the southern direction will bring you to [[Kirzhach]].
 
 
==Get in==
 
Alexandrov is on the boundary of [[Vladimir Oblast]]. It is conveniently reached from [[Moscow Oblast]] and from [[Yaroslavl Oblast]], while the connections from [[Vladimir Oblast]] are less frequent. Alexandrov is usually visited together with [[Kirzhach]] and [[Yuryev-Polsky]] or on the way to [[Rostov Veliky]] and [[Yaroslavl]].
 
 
===By plane===
 
The nearest international airport is in [[Moscow]].
 
 
===By train===
 
There are two railway stations in Alexandrov.
 
* The main station ('''Alexandrov I''') stands on the [[Moscow]]–[[Yaroslavl]] railway, in the very center of the city. This is a stop or a terminal station for all the local trains and for some long-distance trains as well. The station building is open round-the-clock and offers a lounge. Information: +7 (49244) 24-171 (local trains), 94-310 (general information), 24-051 (station assistant).
 
* The second station, '''Alexandrov II''', is minor. It is in the western part of the city, on the railway to [[Kirzhach]]. Alexandrov II is a regular stop for some of the local trains. The station building is closed.
 
Trains are preferable for travelling from [[Moscow]], [[Yaroslavl]], and [[Kirzhach]]:
 
* '''From [[Moscow]]:''' local trains run every hour. The trains depart from ''Yaroslavsky station'', and the trip takes 2 hours. Additionally, there are 2 daily express trains to [[Yaroslavl]] and one express train terminating in Alexandrov. The express trains are slightly faster, but they require a "long-distance" ticket (see [[Russia#Get_around|Russia:Get around]] for details). All the local trains make a stop at [[Sergiev Posad]]. A number of long-distance trains departing from ''Yaroslavsky station'' will also stop in Alexandrov.
 
* '''From [[Ivanovo]]:''' one local train runs early in the morning, while two long-distance trains to [[Moscow]] travel during the night. The trip takes five hours. On the way to Alexandrov, you will pass through [[Yuryev-Polsky]] and [[Kol'chugino]].
 
* '''From [[Kirzhach]]:''' local trains every 1.5-2 hours (mind the gap in the afternoon), the trip takes 40 minutes.
 
* '''From [[Yaroslavl]]:''' same to Moscow, but there are just two local trains per day (travel time 4 hours) and two express trains (2.5 hours). A number of long-distance trains running in southern direction can be used as well. You will pass [[Rostov Veliky]] on your way.
 
Additionally, there are two local trains from [[Dmitrov]]. If you travel from [[Vladimir]], take a local train to [[Orehovo-Zuevo]] and change there to another local train to Alexandrov. The whole trip will take at least 4 hours, so the direct bus connection is recommended instead.
 
 
 
===By bus===
 
The bus station is on the square near the main railway station. The building is open from 5:00 till 21:15. Information: +7 (49244) 24-055 (station assistant), 20-357 (local bus company).
 
* '''From [[Moscow]]:''' 3 buses per day (# 676), departing from ''VDNH metro station''. The trip takes about two hours (mind longer trips during rush hours).
 
* '''From [[Vladimir]]:''' 6 buses per day via [[Kol'chugino]] (3.5 hours).
 
* '''From [[Yuryev-Polsky]]:''' 2 buses per day (2 hours).
 
Additionally, there are several daily buses from [[Kirzhach]]. The town of [[Kol'chugino]] is another convenient transit point with buses to Alexandrov departing every 2-3 hours.
 
 
===By car===
 
Alexandrov has road connections to the neighboring towns of [[Kirzhach]] (37 km) and [[Kol'chugino]] (40 km). From [[Kol'chugino]], you can further reach [[Yuryev-Polsky]] (77 km) or [[Vladimir]] (120 km, via ''Stavrovo'').
 
 
[[Moscow Oblast]] and [[Yaroslavl Oblast]] can be reached via the 25-km connecting road that joins the M8 highway in the village ''Dvoriki''. The alternative way to [[Moscow Oblast]] is the road to ''Strunino'' and further to A108. The northern road to M8 (via ''Lukyantsevo'') is not recommended due to the poor quality.
 
 
* '''From [[Moscow]]:''' take M8 highway towards [[Yaroslavl]], then turn right in the village ''Dvoriki'' (130 km; 50 km from [[Sergiev Posad]]).
 
* '''From [[Vladimir]]:''' take M7 highway towards [[Moscow]], then turn right,  via ''Stavrovo'' and [[Kol'chugino]] (120 km).
 
* '''From [[Yaroslavl]]:''' take M8 highway towards [[Moscow]], then turn left in the village ''Dvoriki'' (190 km; 140 km from [[Rostov Veliky]], 70 km from [[Pereslavl-Zalessky]]).
 
 
The parking space is available all round the city.
 
 
==Get around==
 
The central part of the city is rather small and easily explored by foot. The convent and the train station are found on the opposite sides of the city center (about 20 min walk). A number of city bus routes are available: in particular, buses # 4 and 7 run between the station and the convent.
 
 
 
==See==
 
==See==
 
===Alexandrova sloboda===
 
===Alexandrova sloboda===
Alexandrova sloboda is the eldest part of the city and the former residence of Russian princes. Presently, it is the '''Assumption convent''' (''Успенский монастырь'') jointly operated by the Russian orthodoxal church and the museum. Sloboda is the must-see attraction in the whole city: come here to feel the quiet of ancient walls and churches and to learn something about russian history. The present white-painted stone walls were built in 17th century and follow the general style of medieval Russian fortresses. Original ramparts from 16th century can be seen outside the walls. Inside the convent, you will find several remarkable buildings:
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Alexandrova sloboda is the eldest part of the city and the former residence of Russian princes. Presently, it is the '''Assumption convent''' (''Успенский монастырь'') jointly operated by the Russian orthodoxal church and the museum. Sloboda is the must-see attraction in the whole city: come here to feel the quiet of ancient walls and churches and to learn something about russian history. The present white-painted stone walls were built in 17th century and follow the general style of medieval Russian fortresses. Original ramparts from 16th century can be seen outside the walls. Inside the convent, you find several remarkable buildings:
 
[[Image:Alexandrov-StTrinity.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Cathedral of St. Trinity]]
 
[[Image:Alexandrov-StTrinity.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Cathedral of St. Trinity]]
 
* '''Cathedral of St. Trinity''' (''Троицкий собор'') built in 1513. The cathedral is rather conservative in its shape and decorations. It resembles the ancient churches of [[Vladimir]], [[Bogolyubovo]], and [[Yuryev-Polsky]], however the stone carvings are few. Inside the cathedral, you find some original frescos from 16th century and two iron gates. The gate in the southern portal was brought from [[Novgorod]] during the punitive expedition of Ivan the Terrible in 1570. The other ancient gate is installed in the western portal and also originates from [[Novgorod]]. The gates reveal fine carvings depicting biblical stories. Both gates date back to 14th century and evidence the skill of russian craftsmen. The cathedral belongs to the church. Entrance is free.
 
* '''Cathedral of St. Trinity''' (''Троицкий собор'') built in 1513. The cathedral is rather conservative in its shape and decorations. It resembles the ancient churches of [[Vladimir]], [[Bogolyubovo]], and [[Yuryev-Polsky]], however the stone carvings are few. Inside the cathedral, you find some original frescos from 16th century and two iron gates. The gate in the southern portal was brought from [[Novgorod]] during the punitive expedition of Ivan the Terrible in 1570. The other ancient gate is installed in the western portal and also originates from [[Novgorod]]. The gates reveal fine carvings depicting biblical stories. Both gates date back to 14th century and evidence the skill of russian craftsmen. The cathedral belongs to the church. Entrance is free.
* '''Church of the Intercession''' (''Покровская церковь'') – the hip-roof church originally built in 16th century. It is the first hip-roof church in Russia. You will hardly feel its beauty from the outside, because this church was the very first attempt to incorporate the hip, a new element in 16th century Russian architecture. Moreover, later annexes, the refectory building and the bell-tower, also changed the appearance of the building. Still, its interior remains unique due to the wall paintings (frescos) inside the hip. Hips instead of domes are a distinctive, yet a not very common feature in Russian architecture. The hips were popular in 16th and 17th centuries, while later traditions restricted the hips to bell-towers only. Painting the hips from inside was uncommon even for the medieval tradition. The frescos are painted in dark color and converge to the image of Our Lord in the apex. Overall, they look mystical and awesome. The church was originally attached to the prince palace as an in-house church. The present building of the refectory chamber stands on the spot of the former palace, so in the basement you can still see original stone-work from 16th century and carved portals. The church of the Intercession is a part of the museum.
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* '''Church of the Intercession''' (''Покровская церковь'') – the hip-roof church originally built in 16th century. It is the first hip-roof church in Russia. You will hardly feel its beauty from the outside, because this church was the very first attempt to incorporate the hip, a new element in 16th century Russian architecture. Moreover, later annexes, the refectory chamber and the bell-tower, also changed the appearance of the building. Still, its interior remains unique due to the wall paintings (frescos) inside the hip. Hips instead of domes are a distinctive, yet a not very common feature in Russian architecture. The hips were popular in 16th and 17th centuries, while later traditions restricted the hips to bell-towers only. Painting the hips from inside was uncommon even for the medieval tradition. The frescos are painted in dark color and converge to the image of Our Lord in the apex. Overall, they look mystical and awesome. The church was originally attached to the prince palace as an in-house church. The present building of the refectory chamber stands on the spot of the former palace, so in the basement you can still see original stone-work from 16th century and carved portals. The church of the Intercession is a part of the museum. Tickets are sold at the entrance.
* '''Bell-tower of the Crucifixion''' (Распятская колокольня) – an unusual building from the middle of 16th century, the time of Ivan the Terrible. This bell-tower is about 40 years younger than the church of the Intercession. Still, it is already an example of advanced hip-roof architecture with a pointed hip and numerous semi-round ''kokoshniki'' below it. The stone building attached to the bell-tower is known as '''Marfa's Chambers''', the place of imprisonemnt of princess Marfa, the daughter of Tsar Alexey Michailovich. The museum ticket will allow you to climb up the bell-tower and to enjoy panoramic views of Alexandrov.
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* '''Bell-tower of the Crucifixion''' (Распятская колокольня) – an unusual building from the middle of 16th century, the time of Ivan the Terrible. This bell-tower is an example of advanced hip-roof architecture with a pointed hip and numerous semi-round ''kokoshniki'' below it (yet the tower is just 40 years younger than the church of the Intercession). The adjoining stone building is known as '''Marfa's Chambers''', the place of imprisonment of princess Marfa, the daughter of Tsar Alexey Michailovich. The museum ticket allows to climb up the bell-tower and to enjoy panoramic views of Alexandrov.
 
* '''Church of the Assumption''' (Успенская церковь) is a regular building in the style of 16th–17th centuries. The church was originally constructed around 1525. However, the reconstructions in 1570s and in the 17th century modified the galleries and added the bell-tower. Presently, this church is a part of the museum.
 
* '''Church of the Assumption''' (Успенская церковь) is a regular building in the style of 16th–17th centuries. The church was originally constructed around 1525. However, the reconstructions in 1570s and in the 17th century modified the galleries and added the bell-tower. Presently, this church is a part of the museum.
* '''Further buildings:''' ''church of Theodore Stratelates'' (надвратная церковь Феодора Стратилата: 1682, over-the-gate), ''church of the Presentation'' (церковь Сретения Господня: 1682, a small stocky building in russian style), ''living chamber'' (келейный корпус: 1682, rebuilt in 19th century), and a number of small buildings from 18th – 19th centuries. These buildings are pretty regular, since they were constructed as regular churches and houses in a regular monastery after the decay of the prince residence.
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* '''Further buildings:''' ''church of Theodore Stratelates'' (надвратная церковь Феодора Стратилата: 1682, over-the-gate), ''church of the Presentation'' (церковь Сретения Господня: 1682, a small stocky building in russian style), ''living chamber'' (келейный корпус: 1682, rebuilt in 19th century), and a number of small buildings from 18th – 19th centuries. These buildings are pretty regular, since they were constructed after the decay of the prince residence, as regular churches and houses in a regular monastery.
<see name="Museum" alt="музей-заповедник &quot;Александрова Слобода&quot;" address="Музейный пер. 20" directions="" phone="+7&nbsp;(49244)&nbsp;28-073 (information), 20-397 (excursions), 21-774 (secretary)" email="muzeum@rambler.ru" fax="" url="http://www.kreml.alexandrov.ru/mainmenu-english.html" hours="T&ndash;Su, 09.00&ndash;17.00 (on Friday, till 16.00)" price="15&ndash;30 roubles for each exhibition, about 150 roubles for the whole museum (2009)"></see>
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<see name="Museum" alt="музей-заповедник &quot;Александрова Слобода&quot;" address="Музейный пер. 20" directions="" phone="+7&nbsp;(49244)&nbsp;28-073 (information), 20-397 (excursions), 21-774 (secretary)" email="muzeum@rambler.ru" fax="" url="http://www.kreml.alexandrov.ru/mainmenu-english.html" hours="T&ndash;Su, 09.00&ndash;17.00 (on Friday, till 16.00)" price="Entrance fee: 15&ndash;30 roubles for each exhibition, about 150 roubles for the whole museum (2009)"></see>
  
The museum has seven basic exhibitions. Additionally, it offers a number of scenic "interactive excursions" that reconstruct the medieval atmosphere and show some old russian traditions, however, in a very imitation way. Among the exhibitions, you will find  
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The museum includes seven basic exhibitions. Additionally, it offers a number of scenic "interactive excursions" that reconstruct the medieval atmosphere and show some old russian traditions, however, in a very imitation way. Among the exhibitions, you find  
* '''Palace of Ivan the Terrible'''
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* '''Palace of Ivan the Terrible''' &ndash; the reconstruction of the prince palace.
 
* '''Treasures from three centuries''' &ndash; the collection of old books, icons, textile, and embroidery.
 
* '''Treasures from three centuries''' &ndash; the collection of old books, icons, textile, and embroidery.
 
* '''Tsar court in Alexandrova sloboda''' &ndash; the history of the prince residence and oprichnina.
 
* '''Tsar court in Alexandrova sloboda''' &ndash; the history of the prince residence and oprichnina.
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===Churches===
 
===Churches===
* <see name="Cathedral of the Nativity" alt="Собор Рождества Христова" address="Советский пер. 11" directions="near the Cathedral square" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">The cathedral was built in 1696 and rebuilt in the middle of 19th century. The present appearance of the building is rather unusual and can be referred to russian style.</see>
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[[Image:Nativity-cathedral.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Cathedral of the Nativity]]
* <see name="Church of Bogolyubobo Icon of Our Lady" alt="церковь Боголюбской иконы Божьей матери" address="Красный пер. 11" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A regular church from 1800 in classicism style.</see>
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* <see name="Cathedral of the Nativity" alt="Собор Рождества Христова" address="Советский пер. 11" directions="near the Cathedral square" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">The cathedral was built in 1696 and rebuilt in the middle of 19th century. The present appearance reminds the neo-Byzantine style and, to some extent, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in [[Moscow]]. To continue this comparison, the cathedral in Alexandrov has just one dome due to the low significance of Alexandrov in 19th century. The cathedral is rather unusual, yet it is not really nice.</see>
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* <see name="Church of Bogolyubobo Icon of Our Lady" alt="церковь Боголюбской иконы Божьей матери" address="Красный пер. 11" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A regular church in classicism style from 1800.</see>
 
* <see name="Church of St. Seraphim of Sarov" alt="церковь Серафима Саровского" address="Вокзальная ул. 8" directions="near the main railway station" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A russian revival building from 1904.</see>
 
* <see name="Church of St. Seraphim of Sarov" alt="церковь Серафима Саровского" address="Вокзальная ул. 8" directions="near the main railway station" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A russian revival building from 1904.</see>
 
* <see name="Church of the Transfiguration" alt="Преображенская церковь" address="Садово-Огородная ул. 2а" directions="behind the convent" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A baroque-style church from 1743, rebuilt in the beginning of 19th century.</see>
 
* <see name="Church of the Transfiguration" alt="Преображенская церковь" address="Садово-Огородная ул. 2а" directions="behind the convent" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A baroque-style church from 1743, rebuilt in the beginning of 19th century.</see>
  
 
===Secular buildings===
 
===Secular buildings===
* <see name="Estate of Pervushin" alt="усадьба Первушина" address="ул. Советская, 16" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">The main building and two small adjoining buildings  from the middle of 19th century (neoclassicism style). Presently, the estate houses the art museum.</see>
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[[Image:Pervushin-alexandrov.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Pervushin's estate]]
* <see name="House of the imperial stud farm" alt="здание императорского конного завода" address="ул. Революции, 45" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price=""></see>
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* <see name="Ivanov's house" alt="дом трактирщика Иванова Е.Н." address="ул. Красной молодёжи, 7" directions="near Sovetskaya ploschad'" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A nice building in art nouveau style (1912-1914). Presently, the city administration.</see>
* <see name="House of the inn-keeper Ivanov" alt="дом трактирщика Иванова Е.Н." address="ул. Красной молодёжи, 7" directions="near the Cathedral square" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">An interesting building in art nouveau style (1912-1914). Presently, the city administration.</see>
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* <see name="Pervushin's estate" alt="усадьба Первушина" address="ул. Советская, 16" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">The remarkable classicism-style building from the middle of 19th century. It is combined of two parts which are made of different materal (stone in the right and wood in the left), yet decorated in a very similar way.</see>
* <see name="Railway station" alt="" address="Комсомольская пл" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">The station building (1870) is a nice example of railway buildings from late 19th century.</see>
+
* <see name="Railway station" alt="" address="Комсомольская пл" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">The original station building from 1870, a nice example of Russian railway architecture.</see>
* <see name="Trading rows" alt="Торговые ряды" address="ул. Советская, 5" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">Small building from late 18th century.</see>
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In the city center, you will find further old buildings from 18th&ndash;19th centuries (note the street names: Советская, Первомайская, Военная, Ленина, Революции, Красной Молодёжи). All of them are, however, unremarkable.
  
 
===Museums===
 
===Museums===
* <see name="Art museum" alt="Александровский художественный музей" address="ул. Советская, 16" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-2-43-89, 2-13-82, 2-16-04" email="" fax="" url="http://www.museum.ru/m1449" hours="Daily, 10.00&ndash;18.00" price="">The collection of provincial russian art from late 19th &ndash; 20th century. The paintings are pretty regular and not very interesting. The main reason for visiting the museum is to see the interior of the old building that once belonged to a merchant Pervushin.</see>
+
* <see name="Museum of Marina and Anastasia Tsvetaevas" alt="Александровский литературно-художественный музей Марины и Анастасии Цветаевой" address="at the junction of Военная ул. and Военный пер." directions="south from ulitsa Lenina" phone="+7&nbsp;(49244)&nbsp;24-279, 26-674, 25-693" email="" fax="" url="" hours="W&ndash;Su, 8.30&ndash;17.00" price="Entrance fee: 60 roubles (2009)">The museum occupies the original wooden building where Anastasiya Tsvetaeva, a Russian writer, lived in 1915-1917. Her sister Marina Tsvetaeva, a famous poetess, visited this house and wrote some of her well-known poems here. The managers of the museum do their best to guide every visitor. In fact, visiting the museum without a guide is just impossible, because there are no exhibits to watch. The whole museum is an elegantly furnished room with photos on the walls and an imitation of the footbridge in the middle. The guide will readily tell you about the Tsvetaevas family and also show an exhibition "Alexandrov &ndash; the center of 101st kilometer" about people who were prohibited to live in Moscow during the Soviet times and stayed in Alexandrov. The museum is a local cultural center: it hosts musical and poetical performances, books about Marina Tsvetaeva are also sold here.</see>
* <see name="Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva and Anastasia Tsvetaeva" alt="Александровский литературно-художественный музей Марины и Анастасии Цветаевой" address="Военная ул. 6" directions="south from Sovetskaya square" phone="+7-(49244)-2-42-79, 2-66-74, 2-56-93" email="" fax="" url="http://www.cvetaeva.alexnet.ru/main.php" hours="W&ndash;Su, 8.30&ndash;17.00" price="">The original wooden building where Anastasiya Tsvetaeva, a Russian writer, lived in 1915-1917. Her sister Marina Tsvetaeva, a famous poetess, visited this house and spent here the summer of 1916 &ndash; the period of fruiful poetical work, known as ''Alexandrov summer'' (Александровское лето). The museum presents the history of Tsvetaev's family along with the information on other famous people who lived in Alexandrov in 20th century. The specific role of the city during this period is caused by its position &ndash; about 100 km away from Moscow. During the Soviet time, people released from the prison were prohibited to live in Moscow or within 100 km from Moscow, thus leading to the phenomenon of ''101st kilometer''. The cities lying beyond the 101st kilometer from Moscow were occupied by intellectuals, previously imprisoned for political reasons. Alexandrov was one of such cities, the place of residence for many cultural workers.</see>
+
* <see name="Museum of artificial stone" alt="Музей рукотворного камня" address="Институтская ул. 1" directions="south from the railway station" phone="+7&nbsp;(49244)&nbsp;92-546" email="" fax="" url="" hours="M&ndash;Fr, 8.00&ndash;17.00; excursions can also be booked for the weekend" price="">The museum is attached to the ''institute of synthetic crystals'' where artificial crystals of diamond, sapphire, quartz and other minerals are produced. The exhibition includes natural and artifical stones, the production technology, and the resulting jewelry. The museum shop offers stones produced in the institute. </see>
* <see name="Museum of Stone" alt="Музей рукотворного камня" address="Институтская ул. 1" directions="south from the railway station" phone="+7-(49244)-9-25-46" email="" fax="" url="" hours="M&ndash;Fr, 8.00&ndash;17.00; excursions can also be booked for the weekend" price="">This museum is attached to the ''institute of synthetic crystals'' where artificial crystals of diamond, sapphire, quartz and other minerals are produced. The exposition shows natural and artifical stones, the production technology, and the resulting jewelry. The artifical stones can be purchased in the museum shop. </see>
+
* <see name="Pervushin's house" alt="Усадьба купца Первушина" address="ул. Советская, 16" directions="" phone="+7&nbsp;(49244)&nbsp;24-389, 21-382, 21-604" email="" fax="" url="http://www.museum.ru/m1449" hours="Daily, 10.00&ndash;18.00" price="">The museum reconstructs the old merchant's life. The museum staff act as the family of Pervushin, the 19th century russian merchant. They will tell you about russian traditions and the history of the house, offer tea and local drinks. The interior is not original which is however compensated by an inofficial (non-museum) atmosphere, the chance to see things in detail and to touch them. Art exhibition (another branch of the museum) can be found in the neighboring building (Советская ул. 5).</see>
 
+
The museums of Alexandrov are not very exciting. Aritificial stones are really unusual, while the two other museums try to compensate the lack of exhibits by the intensive (and even troublesome) guidance. The reconstruction of the 19th century life is rather common for russian museums and can be found elsewhere. To learn more about Marina Tsvetaeva, visit the museums in [[Moscow]], [[Ivanovo]], and [[Tarusa]].
==Do==
+
===Cinema===
+
* <do name="Saturn" alt="Сатурн" address="Советская пл" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-3-04-13" email="" fax="" url="http://www.kinosaturn.ru/index.html" hours="" price="">A large entertainment center with a cinema, a night club, and a sushi bar.</do>
+
* <do name="Yuzhnyi" alt="Южный" address="ул. Королёва, 6" directions="south from the city center" phone="+7-(49244)-6-10-72, 6-75-78" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price=""></do>
+
 
+
===Theater===
+
* <do name="Drama theater" alt="Александровский муниципальный театр драмы" address="Институтская ул. 6" directions="south from the railway station" phone="+7-(49244)-2-36-00, 2-47-69" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price=""></do>
+
 
+
==Buy==
+
There are a number of "trade centers" (bundles of small shops) along the central streets &ndash; ulitsa Lenina and Sovetskaya ulitsa. Additionally, in the city center one finds food supermarkets from two of the main Russian networks:
+
* '''Paterson''' (Патэрсон) &ndash; Красный пер. 2 (open daily, 08.00&ndash;22.00)
+
* '''Copeck''' (Копейка) &ndash; ул. Революции, 72 (open daily, 08.00&ndash;22.00)
+
 
+
==Eat==
+
* <eat name="Alexandrov" alt="ресторан &quot;Александров&quot;" address="ул. Революции, 59" directions="north from Sovetskaya ploschad'" phone="" email="" fax="" url="http://www.goodhotels.ru/al_3.php" hours="" price="">The restaurant at the hotel.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Attic" alt="кафе &quot;Чердачок&quot;" address="ул. Ленина, 13" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A small cafe on the second floor of the trade center.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Bungalow" alt="суши-бар &quot;Бунгало&quot;" address="ул. Ленина, 22" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-2-26-83" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A sushi bar.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Cheburechnaya" alt="Чебуречная" address="ул. Ленина, 62" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">Fast food that offers ''chebureki'' (a kind of small pies with meat), pancakes, and grilled meat.</eat>
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* <eat name="Cosa nostra" alt="" address="г. Струнино, ул. Суворова, 22" directions="10 km west from Alexandrov, the town ''Strunino''" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">A nice pizzeria, one of the best places to eat in the region.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Larsen" alt="ресторан &quot;Ларсен&quot;" address="ул. Королёва, 1" directions="southern part of the city, the road to Kirzhach" phone="+7-(49244)-6-47-28, +7-(495)-510-29-93" email="" fax="" url="" hours="Su&ndash;Th, 10.00&ndash;1.00; Fr, Sa, 10.00&ndash;4.00" price="">The restaurant at the hotel.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Person" alt="кафе &quot;Персона&quot;" address="ул. Ленина, 26" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-2-79-81" email="" fax="" url="" hours="10.00&ndash;22.00" price=""></eat>
+
* <eat name="Pizza land" alt="пиццерия &quot;Пиццалэнд&quot;" address="ул. Ленина, 20а" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price="">Pizza-style fast food.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Rendez-vous" alt="кафе &quot;Рандеву&quot;" address="Южный пр-д, 1" directions="southern part of the city" phone="+7-(49244)-6-22-11" email="kafe_randevu@mail.ru" fax="" url="http://randevu.aleksandrov.ru/index.php" hours="" price="">On weekdays, the cafe is open during the daytime and works as a self-service canteen. On Thursdays, Fridays, and Saturadays, it also works in the evening (from 18.00) as a regular cafe.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Satellite" alt="кафе &quot;Спутник&quot;" address="ул. Гагарина, 1" directions="southern part of the city" phone="+7-(49244)-6-40-70" email="" fax="" url="" hours="12.00&ndash;24.00" price=""></eat>
+
* <eat name="Soviet union" alt="кофейня &quot;Советский союз&quot;" address="ул. Ленина, 13/5" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="http://club-su.ru/kaliyan.php" hours="Daily, 9.00&ndash;22.00" price="">A coffee house in the city center.</eat>
+
* <eat name="Sushi-bar" alt="" address="Советская пл" directions="" phone="" email="" fax="" url="http://www.kinosaturn.ru/susi/index.html" hours="15.00&ndash;24.00" price="Main dishes: 150&ndash;250 rubles (2009)">A restaurant of japanese and european cuisine attached to the ''Saturn'' cinema.</eat>
+
 
+
==Drink==
+
There is a local alcohol production in Alexandrov. The factory [http://www.alvz.ru/] produces a variety of vodka, fruit spirits (''nastoyki''), and cognac. All these drinks are readily found in the food stores.
+
 
+
===Night clubs===
+
* <drink name="Saturn" alt="Сатурн" address="Советская пл" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-3-04-13" email="" fax="" url="http://www.kinosaturn.ru/club/index.html" hours="" price=""></drink>
+
* <drink name="Yubileyniy" alt="ДК Юбилейный" address="ул. Свердлова, 37" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-2-39-00" email="" fax="" url="" hours="" price=""></drink>
+
 
+
==Sleep==
+
* <sleep name="Alexandrov" alt="гостиница &quot;Александров&quot;" address="ул. Революции, 59" directions="north from Sovetskaya ploschad'" phone="+7-(49244)-3-14-83" email="" fax="" url="http://www.goodhotels.ru/hotel_alexandrov.php" checkin="" checkout="" price="Double room with shared/private bathroom: 1000/1700-1900 rubles (2009)">The largest hotel of the city. All the rooms were recently renovated and offer the accommodation of different quality: rooms with shared bathroom, rooms with private bathroom, or two-room suites. Breakfast included, guarded parking available. The restaurant is attached to the hotel.</sleep>
+
* <sleep name="Island" alt="отель &quot;Остров&quot;" address="Военная ул. 9" directions="south from Sovetskaya ploschad'" phone="+7-(49244)-3-15-05" email="" fax="" url="" checkin="" checkout="" price="Double room: 1600 rubles (2009)">A modern mini-hotel with fully equipped rooms (breakfast included), guarded parking, and own restaurant.</sleep>
+
* <sleep name="Larsen" alt="гостиница &quot;Ларсен&quot;" address="ул. Королёва, 1" directions="southern part of the city" phone="+7-(49244)-6-47-28, +7-(495)-510-29-93" email="info@grc-larsen.ru" fax="" url="http://www.grc-larsen.ru/" checkin="" checkout="" price="Double room/suite: 1600/3000 rubles (2009)">A modern hotel with a variety of additional services (restaurant, billiard, sport club, barbershop). All the rooms are fully equipped and air-conditioned, while suites additionally offer internet access. Breakfast included, parking available.</sleep>
+
* <sleep name="Vedrussiya" alt="гостиница &quot;Ведруссия&quot;" address="Институтская ул.?" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-3-11-39" email="" fax="" url="" checkin="" checkout="" price="Double room with shared/private: 900/1300 rubles (2009)">A basic accommodation in the ugly part of the city. No breakfast, no parking, no cafe. A limited range of food and drinks is served to the rooms.</sleep>
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* <sleep name="Vita" alt="гостиница &quot;Вита&quot;" address="Вокзальная ул. 1" directions="" phone="+7-(49244)-9-45-97" email="" fax="" url="" checkin="" checkout="" price="Double room: from 1300 rubles (2008)">A mini-hotel near the railway station. Basic accommodation (rooms with shared or private bathrooms), noise from the trains. No breakfast, guarded parking available.</sleep>
+
 
+
==Contact==
+
===Post office===
+
The postal code of Alexandrov is 60165*. Offices in the city center:
+
* <listing name="Central post office" alt="601650" directions="" address="ул. Ленина, 28" phone="+7-(49244)-2-16-06, 2-58-71, 2-16-75" email="" fax="" url="" hours="M&ndash;Fr, 8.00&ndash;22.00; Sa, 8.00&ndash;18.00; Su, 8.00&ndash;14.00" price=""></listing>
+
* <listing name="Post office # 2" alt="601652" directions="east from the convent" address="Кольчугинская ул. 5" phone="+7-(49244)-2-26-95" email="" fax="" url="" hours="M&ndash;Sa, 9.00&ndash;20.00" price=""></listing>
+
* <listing name="Post office # 4" alt="601654" directions="" address="Вокзальная ул. 1" phone="+7-(49244)-2-04-83" email="" fax="" url="" hours="M&ndash;Sa, 9.00&ndash;20.00" price=""></listing>
+
 
+
===Internet access===
+
Internet connection is likely available at the post offices.
+
 
+
==Get out==
+
===Local destinations===
+
* '''Arsaki''' (Арсаки) &ndash; the village 20 km west from Alexandrov. This place is known for the monk's settlement (''Смоленско-Зосимова пустынь'') that appeared in the second half of 17th century as a side settlement of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius ([[Sergiev Posad]]). Presently, one finds nice examples of red-brick churches in russian revival style from late 19th century. These buildings belong to the church, but they are located inside the military territory. Entering this territory requires an ID and is likely problematic for non-residents.
+
** ''Get in:'' local trains to [[Moscow]] or [[Dmitrov]] (every hour).
+
* '''Bol'shoe Karinskoe''' (Большое Каринское) &ndash; the village 4 km south-west from Alexandrov (N56&deg; 22.427', E38&deg; 39.997'). The field near the village (''Каринское поле'') is the place of the battle between Russian and Polish troops in 1609, during the Time of Troubles. The monument commemorates this event.
+
** ''Get in:'' buses and minibuses to Strunino (every hour). Note that the bus should be explicitly marked "via Karinskoe". There is an alternative route following a different road.
+
* '''Karabanovo''' (Карабаново) &ndash; the unremarkable industrial town 10 km south from Alexandrov. One finds a red-brick industrial building from early 20th century, and that is likely all to see here.
+
** ''Get in:'' local trains towards [[Kirzhach]], buses or minibuses every 15-30 minutes.
+
* '''Lizunovo''' (Лизуново) &ndash; the village 20 km south-west from Alexandrov. The museum of Alexei Musatov, a Soviet writer.
+
** ''Get in:'' no public transport available.
+
* '''Lukyantsevo''' (Лукьянцево) &ndash; the village 15 km north from Alexandrov (N56.5045&deg;, E38.7132&deg;), the monastery from late 16th century (Свято-Лукианова мужская пустынь). The monastery preserves three ancient buildings in russian style from late 17th &ndash; early 18th century: ''church of the Nativity of the Theotokos'', ''church of the Epiphany'', and ''church of Ekaterina''.
+
** ''Get in:'' three buses daily.
+
* '''Mahra''' (Махра) &ndash; the ''convent of St. Trinity'' (Свято-Троицкий Стефано-Махрищский женский монастырь) [http://www.stefmon.ru/], 15 km south from Alexandrov (N56.2705&deg;, E38.6804&deg;). The convent dates back to 14th century, but its present appearance is very recent, because most of the buildings were destroyed during the Soviet period. The original buildings are the baroque-style ''church of Sergiy Radonezhsky'' (over-the-gate) and the ''church of Peter and Paul'' (both are from late 18th century), the refectory building and living halls (late 19th century). The largest and the most impressive ''church of St. Stephan'' was rebuilt in 1997. The territory of the convent is well decorated and looks very picturesque during the summertime.
+
** ''Get in:'' buses from Alexandrov every two hours.
+
* '''Strunino''' (Струнино) &ndash; the unremarkable town 10 km west from Alexandrov. The only attractions are the ravaged red-brick industrial building from early 20th century and few later buildings in constructivist style.
+
** ''Get in:'' local trains towards [[Moscow]], buses every 20-30 minutes.
+
 
+
===Further destinations===
+
* '''[[Kirzhach]]''' &ndash; the small town interesting for its 16th century monastery.
+
* '''[[Kol'chugino]]''' &ndash; one of the relatively new towns of the region. It lacks any important tourist attractions, yet the services (hotels and restaurants) may be useful.
+
* '''[[Rostov Veliky]]''' &ndash; one of the main destinations of the [[Golden Ring]], the ancient town with numerous remarkable monuments.
+
* '''[[Sergiev Posad]]''' &ndash; the well-known destination with a huge ancient convent, one of the most important religious places in Russia.
+
* '''[[Yuryev-Polsky]]''' &ndash; the ancient town with a unique 13th century cathedral and sleepy provincial atmosphere.
+
 
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{{IsIn|Vladimir_Oblast}}
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{{guide}}
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{{cityguide}}
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{{related|Golden Ring}}
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[[ru:Александров]]
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[[wts:Category:Aleksandrov]]
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[[wikipedia:Alexandrov (town)]]
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[[wmc:Category:Alexandrov]]
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Revision as of 23:49, 27 November 2009

Contents

See

Alexandrova sloboda

Alexandrova sloboda is the eldest part of the city and the former residence of Russian princes. Presently, it is the Assumption convent (Успенский монастырь) jointly operated by the Russian orthodoxal church and the museum. Sloboda is the must-see attraction in the whole city: come here to feel the quiet of ancient walls and churches and to learn something about russian history. The present white-painted stone walls were built in 17th century and follow the general style of medieval Russian fortresses. Original ramparts from 16th century can be seen outside the walls. Inside the convent, you find several remarkable buildings:

Cathedral of St. Trinity
  • Cathedral of St. Trinity (Троицкий собор) built in 1513. The cathedral is rather conservative in its shape and decorations. It resembles the ancient churches of Vladimir, Bogolyubovo, and Yuryev-Polsky, however the stone carvings are few. Inside the cathedral, you find some original frescos from 16th century and two iron gates. The gate in the southern portal was brought from Novgorod during the punitive expedition of Ivan the Terrible in 1570. The other ancient gate is installed in the western portal and also originates from Novgorod. The gates reveal fine carvings depicting biblical stories. Both gates date back to 14th century and evidence the skill of russian craftsmen. The cathedral belongs to the church. Entrance is free.
  • Church of the Intercession (Покровская церковь) – the hip-roof church originally built in 16th century. It is the first hip-roof church in Russia. You will hardly feel its beauty from the outside, because this church was the very first attempt to incorporate the hip, a new element in 16th century Russian architecture. Moreover, later annexes, the refectory chamber and the bell-tower, also changed the appearance of the building. Still, its interior remains unique due to the wall paintings (frescos) inside the hip. Hips instead of domes are a distinctive, yet a not very common feature in Russian architecture. The hips were popular in 16th and 17th centuries, while later traditions restricted the hips to bell-towers only. Painting the hips from inside was uncommon even for the medieval tradition. The frescos are painted in dark color and converge to the image of Our Lord in the apex. Overall, they look mystical and awesome. The church was originally attached to the prince palace as an in-house church. The present building of the refectory chamber stands on the spot of the former palace, so in the basement you can still see original stone-work from 16th century and carved portals. The church of the Intercession is a part of the museum. Tickets are sold at the entrance.
  • Bell-tower of the Crucifixion (Распятская колокольня) – an unusual building from the middle of 16th century, the time of Ivan the Terrible. This bell-tower is an example of advanced hip-roof architecture with a pointed hip and numerous semi-round kokoshniki below it (yet the tower is just 40 years younger than the church of the Intercession). The adjoining stone building is known as Marfa's Chambers, the place of imprisonment of princess Marfa, the daughter of Tsar Alexey Michailovich. The museum ticket allows to climb up the bell-tower and to enjoy panoramic views of Alexandrov.
  • Church of the Assumption (Успенская церковь) is a regular building in the style of 16th–17th centuries. The church was originally constructed around 1525. However, the reconstructions in 1570s and in the 17th century modified the galleries and added the bell-tower. Presently, this church is a part of the museum.
  • Further buildings: church of Theodore Stratelates (надвратная церковь Феодора Стратилата: 1682, over-the-gate), church of the Presentation (церковь Сретения Господня: 1682, a small stocky building in russian style), living chamber (келейный корпус: 1682, rebuilt in 19th century), and a number of small buildings from 18th – 19th centuries. These buildings are pretty regular, since they were constructed after the decay of the prince residence, as regular churches and houses in a regular monastery.

Museum (музей-заповедник "Александрова Слобода"), Музейный пер. 20, +7 (49244) 28-073 (information), 20-397 (excursions), 21-774 (secretary) (), [1]. T–Su, 09.00–17.00 (on Friday, till 16.00). Entrance fee: 15–30 roubles for each exhibition, about 150 roubles for the whole museum (2009).

The museum includes seven basic exhibitions. Additionally, it offers a number of scenic "interactive excursions" that reconstruct the medieval atmosphere and show some old russian traditions, however, in a very imitation way. Among the exhibitions, you find

  • Palace of Ivan the Terrible – the reconstruction of the prince palace.
  • Treasures from three centuries – the collection of old books, icons, textile, and embroidery.
  • Tsar court in Alexandrova sloboda – the history of the prince residence and oprichnina.

The must-see exhibition is one in the church of the Intercession (Tsar court in Alexandrova sloboda). Here you find the ivory carved throne of Ivan the Terrible and other original items from 16th century. You will also enter the church and watch the unique wall paintings inside the hip. Downstairs in the same building, one finds the original basement of the prince palace. Other exhibitions are fairly regular.

Churches

Cathedral of the Nativity
  • Cathedral of the Nativity (Собор Рождества Христова), Советский пер. 11 (near the Cathedral square). The cathedral was built in 1696 and rebuilt in the middle of 19th century. The present appearance reminds the neo-Byzantine style and, to some extent, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. To continue this comparison, the cathedral in Alexandrov has just one dome due to the low significance of Alexandrov in 19th century. The cathedral is rather unusual, yet it is not really nice.
  • Church of Bogolyubobo Icon of Our Lady (церковь Боголюбской иконы Божьей матери), Красный пер. 11. A regular church in classicism style from 1800.
  • Church of St. Seraphim of Sarov (церковь Серафима Саровского), Вокзальная ул. 8 (near the main railway station). A russian revival building from 1904.
  • Church of the Transfiguration (Преображенская церковь), Садово-Огородная ул. 2а (behind the convent). A baroque-style church from 1743, rebuilt in the beginning of 19th century.

Secular buildings

Pervushin's estate
  • Ivanov's house (дом трактирщика Иванова Е.Н.), ул. Красной молодёжи, 7 (near Sovetskaya ploschad'). A nice building in art nouveau style (1912-1914). Presently, the city administration.
  • Pervushin's estate (усадьба Первушина), ул. Советская, 16. The remarkable classicism-style building from the middle of 19th century. It is combined of two parts which are made of different materal (stone in the right and wood in the left), yet decorated in a very similar way.
  • Railway station, Комсомольская пл. The original station building from 1870, a nice example of Russian railway architecture.

In the city center, you will find further old buildings from 18th–19th centuries (note the street names: Советская, Первомайская, Военная, Ленина, Революции, Красной Молодёжи). All of them are, however, unremarkable.

Museums

  • Museum of Marina and Anastasia Tsvetaevas (Александровский литературно-художественный музей Марины и Анастасии Цветаевой), at the junction of Военная ул. and Военный пер. (south from ulitsa Lenina), +7 (49244) 24-279, 26-674, 25-693. W–Su, 8.30–17.00. The museum occupies the original wooden building where Anastasiya Tsvetaeva, a Russian writer, lived in 1915-1917. Her sister Marina Tsvetaeva, a famous poetess, visited this house and wrote some of her well-known poems here. The managers of the museum do their best to guide every visitor. In fact, visiting the museum without a guide is just impossible, because there are no exhibits to watch. The whole museum is an elegantly furnished room with photos on the walls and an imitation of the footbridge in the middle. The guide will readily tell you about the Tsvetaevas family and also show an exhibition "Alexandrov – the center of 101st kilometer" about people who were prohibited to live in Moscow during the Soviet times and stayed in Alexandrov. The museum is a local cultural center: it hosts musical and poetical performances, books about Marina Tsvetaeva are also sold here. Entrance fee: 60 roubles (2009).
  • Museum of artificial stone (Музей рукотворного камня), Институтская ул. 1 (south from the railway station), +7 (49244) 92-546. M–Fr, 8.00–17.00; excursions can also be booked for the weekend. The museum is attached to the institute of synthetic crystals where artificial crystals of diamond, sapphire, quartz and other minerals are produced. The exhibition includes natural and artifical stones, the production technology, and the resulting jewelry. The museum shop offers stones produced in the institute.
  • Pervushin's house (Усадьба купца Первушина), ул. Советская, 16, +7 (49244) 24-389, 21-382, 21-604, [2]. Daily, 10.00–18.00. The museum reconstructs the old merchant's life. The museum staff act as the family of Pervushin, the 19th century russian merchant. They will tell you about russian traditions and the history of the house, offer tea and local drinks. The interior is not original which is however compensated by an inofficial (non-museum) atmosphere, the chance to see things in detail and to touch them. Art exhibition (another branch of the museum) can be found in the neighboring building (Советская ул. 5).

The museums of Alexandrov are not very exciting. Aritificial stones are really unusual, while the two other museums try to compensate the lack of exhibits by the intensive (and even troublesome) guidance. The reconstruction of the 19th century life is rather common for russian museums and can be found elsewhere. To learn more about Marina Tsvetaeva, visit the museums in Moscow, Ivanovo, and Tarusa.

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