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'''Siauliai''' is a city in [[Lithuania]]. It is one of the oldest cities in Lithunia, established in 1236. It is named after a Sun Battle that took place near.  
+
'''Siauliai''' is a fourth largest city in [[Lithuania]]. Its name derives from the word Saulė, which is a Lithuanian word for Sun. It is named after a Sun Battle that took place nearby. With time the name has changed and had several kinds of spelling.
 +
 
 +
==Understand==
 +
The settlement dates back to Neolithic Era, it became a town in ca XI century, but the official date of foundation is considered to be 1236 when the Sun Battle (Saulės Mūšis) took place near the modern location of Šiauliai city. In 1795, Šiauliai was incorporated into Russia. During WWI Šiauliai was burned down and totally bombed. Became a Lithuanian city again in 1918, acknowledged to Lithuania by Soviet Russia in 1920. Restored during the interwar years, then bombed again during WWII in 1944 when the Red Army retook it at the war’s end. The city became an important industrial center of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and the home for a Soviet Air Force base (10th Fighter Regiment of 7th Mixed Air Division of Baltic Special Military District, and the 18th Military Transport Aviation Division). With Lithuania’s independence in 1991 the Soviet troops had been withdrawn, however the old historical part of the city (with exception of very few buildings and churches) is lost.
  
 
==Get in==
 
==Get in==
You can get to Siauliai by train or by bus from most of other cities in Lithuania. The schedules for busses you can see from [http://www.busturas.lt/en] and railways [http://www.litrail.lt/wps/portal]
+
You can get to Siauliai by train or by bus from most other cities in Lithuania. The schedules for buses you can find from [http://www.busturas.lt/en] and railways from [http://www.litrail.lt/wps/portal]
  
 
==Get around==
 
==Get around==
Siauliai is not a big city, so you need no more than buses or just youe onwn feet. Buses go all through Siauliai. There are everyday buses that go to places around the city.
+
Siauliai is not a big city, so you need no more than buses or just your own feet. Buses go all through Siauliai. There are daily buses that go to places around the city.
  
City bussies goes from 5 a.m. till 11 p.m.
+
City buses run from 5AM-11PM. You can by tickets in the kiosks, one ticket costs 1,80 Lt
  
The buses go from 5 a.m till 11 p.m.
+
The microbuses go from 6AM-11PM. You can buy tickets in the microbus. One ticket costs 2,00 Lt.
  
You can by tickets in the kiosks, one ticket costs 1,40 Lt
+
==See==
  
You can by tickets in the kiosks, one ticket costs 1,60 Lt
+
*'''Sculptures'''. You can find small sculptures and fountains all over the city: Sculpture "Three Birds", Fountain Rude, Sculpture "Pelicans", Sculpture "Motherhood", Sculpture "Three Trolls", Sculpture "Dawn", Sculpture "A grandfather with his grandchildren", Sculpture "A reading man".
  
The microbuses go from 6 am till 23 pm.
+
*'''7 Objects of sun''':
You can buy tickets in the microbus. One ticket costs 1,80 Lt.
+
  
==See==
+
:*'''Dawn (Aušra)'" Sculpture
'''Hill of Crosses''' is biggest attraction in Siauliai to people all other the world, especially christian piligrim travelers.
+
[[Image:Hill_of_crosses.jpg|thumb|300px|The Hill Of Crosses near Siauliai]]
+
To get there:
+
  
By car:
+
:*'''Cathedral of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul'''
  
Take a road A12, toward Joniskis; Ryga. After roadsign "KRYZIU KALNAS - 2 km", turn right.
+
:*'''Solar Disks'" Fountain
  
Public transport:
+
:*'''Sundial Square'''
From Siauliai bus station, Joniskis direction. Leave the bus in DOMANTAI stop.
+
  
 +
:*'''Monument to the Battle of the Sun''' in Salduve Park
  
There are all sorts of smaller and bigger monuments, museums.
+
:*'''Cockerel Clock Square'''
  
'''7 Objects of sun''':
+
:*'''Stained Glass Window''', commemorating the Battle of the Sun
  
Sculpture "Dawn"
+
*'''Churches''', Siauliai has 4 churches.
 +
:*Cathedral of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul.
 +
:*St. George's church, St. Ignatus' church
 +
:*Saints Peter and Paul's Church of the Othodox parish.
  
Siauliai Cathedral of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Pau
+
==='''Hill of Crosses''' (''Kryžių Kalnas'')===
  
"Solar Disks" Fountain
+
The Hill of Crosses,[http://www.hillofcrosses.com link title] (''Kryžių Kalnas''), north of Šiauliai is a national centre of pilgrimage in Lithuania. Standing upon a small hill, a former hill-fort, are many hundreds of thousands of crosses that represent Christian devotion and a memorial to Lithuanian national identity. Over the centuries, the Hill has come to signify the peaceful endurance of Lithuanian Catholicism. After the 3rd partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Lithuania became part of the Russian Empire.
  
Sundial Square
+
Poles and Lithuanians unsuccessfully rebelled against Russian authorities in 1831 and 1863. The two uprisings are thought to be connected with the contemporary use of the hill as a religious site. When families could not locate bodies of perished rebels during the uprisings[http://www.example.com link title], they started putting up symbolic crosses in the  location of a former hill fort.
  
Monument to the Battle of the Sun in Salduve Park
+
[[Image:Hill-of-crosses-siauliai.jpg|thumb|350px|Hill of crosses (Kryžių Kalnas) near Siauliai, Lithuania]]
 +
[[Image:Pathway in the Hill-of-crosses-siauliai.jpg|thumb|300px|A pathway inside the Hill of crosses (Kryžių Kalnas) near Siauliai, Lithuania]]
  
Cockerel  Clock Square
+
After WWI, in 1918 Lithuania regained independence. In 1922 there were 50 crosses, the number before the WWII reached over 400. During that period the Hill of Crosses was a place for Masses and devotions.
  
Stained Glass Window,  The Battle of the Sun
+
[[Image:Siauliai Hill of Crosses.JPG|thumb|300px|Hill of crosses (Kryžių Kalnas) near Siauliai, Lithuania-after a snow fall]]
  
 +
After WWII Šiauliai region became a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became an expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by many nationalistic and Christian Lithuanians.
  
Siauliai has 4 chruches. One, already mentioned, Cathedral of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul. Also: St. George's church, St. Ignatus' church and Sts. Peter and Paul's Church of the Othodox parish.  
+
In 1961, 1973 and 1975 the Hill was cleared and the crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal with the area being covered with waste to discourage further similar activities at the site. On each occasion the local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania replaced the crosses on the hill.  
  
 +
The hill is currently visited by many thousands of visitors and pilgrims from all over the world. The current number of crosses is unknown. Estimates put it at about 55,000 in 1990 and by 2006 the number had grown to an estimated 100,000. Diverse styles, designs and sizes are represented amongst the crosses. Some are carved out of wood, others sculpted from metal. The crosses range from 3m tall to countless tiny examples hanging upon and about the larger crosses.
  
You can find small sculptures and fountains all over the city: Sculpture "Three Birds", Fountain Rude, Sculpture "Pelicans", Sculpture "Motherhood", Sculpture "Three Trolls", Sculpture "Dawn", Sculpture "A grandfather with his grandchildren", Sculpture "A reading man".
+
On 7 September, 1993, Pope John Paul II visited the Hill of Crosses, declaring it a place for hope, peace, love and sacrifice.  
  
 +
In 2000 a Franciscan hermitage was opened nearby. The interior decoration of this monastery draws upon La Verna, the mountain where St. Francis received his stigmata.
 +
 +
:''By car'', take the A12 road, toward Joniškis; Ryga. After the roadsign "KRYŽIŲ KALNAS - 2 km", turn right. <br>
 +
:''By bus'': From Siauliai bus station, Joniškis direction. Leave the bus at the  DOMANTAI stop, walk about 2 km. To get back to Šiauliai walk back to the Domantai stop and wait for a bus. It is important that only suburban buses stop there, all intercity buses will pass you by.
 +
:''By taxi'': From Šiauliai centre take a taxi, when at the spot tell the driver to wait (taxis usually wait up to 30 minutes), make sure you understood each other. Drivers may not speak English, but everybody understand and expect that you will be going to the Hill of Crosses. There also is a taxi service Šiauliai-Riga, expenses shared between passengers are worthwhile.
 +
[[Image:Hill_of_crosses.jpg|thumb|300px|The Hill Of Crosses near Siauliai]]
 +
 +
* 300 m away from the Hill is a Christian monastery. It  has sixteen cells. This monastery serves as a novitiate of the Lithuanian Franciscan province of St. Casimir but is also open to the pilgrims who may look to it for silence and peace. This hermit of the Franciscan Brothers was consecrated on 7 July, 2000.
  
 
==Do==
 
==Do==
 +
Although the most interesting site near Šiauliai, the Hill of Crosses, is situated north of the city, the most attractive recreation area lies some 20km south-west from Šiauliai centre. The area is commonly known as ''Kurtuvėnai Forest'', which is a part of '''Kurtuvėnai Regional Park''' [http://www.kurtuva.lt] with the centre in Kurtuvėnai village. The management of Regional Park with the guest house is settled there. Horse riding centre locates in the stables of Kurtuvėnai Manor and operates since 1995. The three-star camping site "Kurtuvėnai" was established in the garden of the manor in 2008. The tavern "Kryžkelė" (“Crossroad”) was opened in the renewed peon's house. The building was built for the czarist army's warehouses when they dig Venta-Dubysa channel in the 19th century. Here you can try, of course, genuine Lithuanian beer, as well as some culinary heritage dishes which are made using old traditions.  The Regional Park has numerous places, related to Lithuanian national movement of the junction of the 19th-20th centuries and to the events of both world wars.  Kurtuvėnai has a rich, nice and diverse environment. Park area covers 17252 ha, including 12130 ha of the forests. Whole park’s territory is divided to several zones: conservation (nature reserves), ecological priority (preservation), recreation, economic (forestry, agriculture) and living zones. Sparsely populated, park territory has about 1200 local dwellers.  30 small lakelets are swashing and 20 forest rivulets are running in the shelter of forests. Kurtuvėnai settlement is surrounded by nearly 100 fishery reservoirs. In the western part of the park there spurt well-known multiple springs of Svilė, which are considered to be the biggest in Lithuania. Predominant forests are coniferous. The landscape is characterized with high biodiversity of vegetation, some 981 plant species have been found there. There can be found many common species of birds and animals, even wolves are among them here, they permanently live in the western part of the forest.  Some of the habitats are of European importance (Natura 2000). There are 2 cognitive paths (about 4.5 km each one) and 2 bicycle trails, 6 defensive hill-forts, 8 interesting landscape objects, 15 alone standing trees, each of which is a separate object of interest, related to one or other historical event or is just an expressive example of nature.  The Shrovetide Feastival of Kurtuvenai is acknowledged as a one of the most viable traditional festivals all over Lithuania. Also, other feasts take place there, such as the Festival of barn-theaters, Fire-linkup on the Girnikai hill-fort, Midsummer Feast, and various events of the Christmas time.
 +
* One of the best known attractions here  is <do name="Kurtuvėnai Horse Riding Centre" alt="" address="Parko street 2, Kurtuvėnai, LT-80223 Šiauliai district" directions="From Šiauliai centre drive South-West down the A12 highway (Kelmė direction) about 15 km, then turn right after Bubiai village (road No 215) and drive about 5km, then turn left to Kurtuvėnai" lat="" long="" phone="For reservation +370 41 370-333, Mobile +370 618 29964" tollfree="" email="info@kurtuva.lt" fax="" url="www.kurtuva.lt" hours="Open whole year round. price="Price for 2 persons 270 Lt/78 €, including two nights accommodation in ***camping"></do>
  
 
==Buy==
 
==Buy==
  
 
==Eat==
 
==Eat==
 +
*<eat name="Senasis Sodžius" alt="" address="" directions="In front of Saulės Miestas" phone="" url="" hours="" price="Lunch around 5 dollars" lat="" long="">This is the best place in Siauliai to try traditional Lithuanian food. Service is nice and very fast. Prices are quite low and food quality is great. It is not a big place, but it is very popular, so better avoid comming in lunch hours. Even if you do come in lunch hour, do not be scared of long line there - service is so fast that this you won't need to wait long.</eat>
  
 
==Drink==
 
==Drink==
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==Get out==
 
==Get out==
  
{{IsPartOf|}}
+
[[Riga]] (''Ryga'') in nearby [[Latvia]].
 +
 
 +
[[Klaipeda]], Lithuania's third largest city is to the south west.
 +
 
 +
[[Kaunas]], Lithuania's second city is to the south east.
 +
 
 +
[[Telšiai]], the capital city of Samogitia region.
 +
 
 +
 
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{{IsPartOf|Žemaitija}}
 
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{{outline}}
 
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Revision as of 20:50, 26 March 2013

Siauliai is a fourth largest city in Lithuania. Its name derives from the word Saulė, which is a Lithuanian word for Sun. It is named after a Sun Battle that took place nearby. With time the name has changed and had several kinds of spelling.

Contents

Understand

The settlement dates back to Neolithic Era, it became a town in ca XI century, but the official date of foundation is considered to be 1236 when the Sun Battle (Saulės Mūšis) took place near the modern location of Šiauliai city. In 1795, Šiauliai was incorporated into Russia. During WWI Šiauliai was burned down and totally bombed. Became a Lithuanian city again in 1918, acknowledged to Lithuania by Soviet Russia in 1920. Restored during the interwar years, then bombed again during WWII in 1944 when the Red Army retook it at the war’s end. The city became an important industrial center of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and the home for a Soviet Air Force base (10th Fighter Regiment of 7th Mixed Air Division of Baltic Special Military District, and the 18th Military Transport Aviation Division). With Lithuania’s independence in 1991 the Soviet troops had been withdrawn, however the old historical part of the city (with exception of very few buildings and churches) is lost.

Get in

You can get to Siauliai by train or by bus from most other cities in Lithuania. The schedules for buses you can find from [1] and railways from [2]

Get around

Siauliai is not a big city, so you need no more than buses or just your own feet. Buses go all through Siauliai. There are daily buses that go to places around the city.

City buses run from 5AM-11PM. You can by tickets in the kiosks, one ticket costs 1,80 Lt

The microbuses go from 6AM-11PM. You can buy tickets in the microbus. One ticket costs 2,00 Lt.

See

  • Sculptures. You can find small sculptures and fountains all over the city: Sculpture "Three Birds", Fountain Rude, Sculpture "Pelicans", Sculpture "Motherhood", Sculpture "Three Trolls", Sculpture "Dawn", Sculpture "A grandfather with his grandchildren", Sculpture "A reading man".
  • 7 Objects of sun:
  • Dawn (Aušra)'" Sculpture
  • Cathedral of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul
  • Solar Disks'" Fountain
  • Sundial Square
  • Monument to the Battle of the Sun in Salduve Park
  • Cockerel Clock Square
  • Stained Glass Window, commemorating the Battle of the Sun
  • Churches, Siauliai has 4 churches.
  • Cathedral of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul.
  • St. George's church, St. Ignatus' church
  • Saints Peter and Paul's Church of the Othodox parish.

Hill of Crosses (Kryžių Kalnas)

The Hill of Crosses,link title (Kryžių Kalnas), north of Šiauliai is a national centre of pilgrimage in Lithuania. Standing upon a small hill, a former hill-fort, are many hundreds of thousands of crosses that represent Christian devotion and a memorial to Lithuanian national identity. Over the centuries, the Hill has come to signify the peaceful endurance of Lithuanian Catholicism. After the 3rd partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Lithuania became part of the Russian Empire.

Poles and Lithuanians unsuccessfully rebelled against Russian authorities in 1831 and 1863. The two uprisings are thought to be connected with the contemporary use of the hill as a religious site. When families could not locate bodies of perished rebels during the uprisingslink title, they started putting up symbolic crosses in the location of a former hill fort.

Hill of crosses (Kryžių Kalnas) near Siauliai, Lithuania
A pathway inside the Hill of crosses (Kryžių Kalnas) near Siauliai, Lithuania

After WWI, in 1918 Lithuania regained independence. In 1922 there were 50 crosses, the number before the WWII reached over 400. During that period the Hill of Crosses was a place for Masses and devotions.

Hill of crosses (Kryžių Kalnas) near Siauliai, Lithuania-after a snow fall

After WWII Šiauliai region became a part of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet era, the pilgrimage to the Hill of Crosses became an expression of Lithuanian nationalism. The Soviets repeatedly removed the crosses placed on the hill by many nationalistic and Christian Lithuanians.

In 1961, 1973 and 1975 the Hill was cleared and the crosses were burned or turned into scrap metal with the area being covered with waste to discourage further similar activities at the site. On each occasion the local inhabitants and pilgrims from all over Lithuania replaced the crosses on the hill.

The hill is currently visited by many thousands of visitors and pilgrims from all over the world. The current number of crosses is unknown. Estimates put it at about 55,000 in 1990 and by 2006 the number had grown to an estimated 100,000. Diverse styles, designs and sizes are represented amongst the crosses. Some are carved out of wood, others sculpted from metal. The crosses range from 3m tall to countless tiny examples hanging upon and about the larger crosses.

On 7 September, 1993, Pope John Paul II visited the Hill of Crosses, declaring it a place for hope, peace, love and sacrifice.

In 2000 a Franciscan hermitage was opened nearby. The interior decoration of this monastery draws upon La Verna, the mountain where St. Francis received his stigmata.

By car, take the A12 road, toward Joniškis; Ryga. After the roadsign "KRYŽIŲ KALNAS - 2 km", turn right.
By bus: From Siauliai bus station, Joniškis direction. Leave the bus at the DOMANTAI stop, walk about 2 km. To get back to Šiauliai walk back to the Domantai stop and wait for a bus. It is important that only suburban buses stop there, all intercity buses will pass you by.
By taxi: From Šiauliai centre take a taxi, when at the spot tell the driver to wait (taxis usually wait up to 30 minutes), make sure you understood each other. Drivers may not speak English, but everybody understand and expect that you will be going to the Hill of Crosses. There also is a taxi service Šiauliai-Riga, expenses shared between passengers are worthwhile.
The Hill Of Crosses near Siauliai
  • 300 m away from the Hill is a Christian monastery. It has sixteen cells. This monastery serves as a novitiate of the Lithuanian Franciscan province of St. Casimir but is also open to the pilgrims who may look to it for silence and peace. This hermit of the Franciscan Brothers was consecrated on 7 July, 2000.

Do

Although the most interesting site near Šiauliai, the Hill of Crosses, is situated north of the city, the most attractive recreation area lies some 20km south-west from Šiauliai centre. The area is commonly known as Kurtuvėnai Forest, which is a part of Kurtuvėnai Regional Park [3] with the centre in Kurtuvėnai village. The management of Regional Park with the guest house is settled there. Horse riding centre locates in the stables of Kurtuvėnai Manor and operates since 1995. The three-star camping site "Kurtuvėnai" was established in the garden of the manor in 2008. The tavern "Kryžkelė" (“Crossroad”) was opened in the renewed peon's house. The building was built for the czarist army's warehouses when they dig Venta-Dubysa channel in the 19th century. Here you can try, of course, genuine Lithuanian beer, as well as some culinary heritage dishes which are made using old traditions. The Regional Park has numerous places, related to Lithuanian national movement of the junction of the 19th-20th centuries and to the events of both world wars. Kurtuvėnai has a rich, nice and diverse environment. Park area covers 17252 ha, including 12130 ha of the forests. Whole park’s territory is divided to several zones: conservation (nature reserves), ecological priority (preservation), recreation, economic (forestry, agriculture) and living zones. Sparsely populated, park territory has about 1200 local dwellers. 30 small lakelets are swashing and 20 forest rivulets are running in the shelter of forests. Kurtuvėnai settlement is surrounded by nearly 100 fishery reservoirs. In the western part of the park there spurt well-known multiple springs of Svilė, which are considered to be the biggest in Lithuania. Predominant forests are coniferous. The landscape is characterized with high biodiversity of vegetation, some 981 plant species have been found there. There can be found many common species of birds and animals, even wolves are among them here, they permanently live in the western part of the forest. Some of the habitats are of European importance (Natura 2000). There are 2 cognitive paths (about 4.5 km each one) and 2 bicycle trails, 6 defensive hill-forts, 8 interesting landscape objects, 15 alone standing trees, each of which is a separate object of interest, related to one or other historical event or is just an expressive example of nature. The Shrovetide Feastival of Kurtuvenai is acknowledged as a one of the most viable traditional festivals all over Lithuania. Also, other feasts take place there, such as the Festival of barn-theaters, Fire-linkup on the Girnikai hill-fort, Midsummer Feast, and various events of the Christmas time.

  • One of the best known attractions here is Kurtuvėnai Horse Riding Centre, Parko street 2, Kurtuvėnai, LT-80223 Šiauliai district (From Šiauliai centre drive South-West down the A12 highway (Kelmė direction) about 15 km, then turn right after Bubiai village (road No 215) and drive about 5km, then turn left to Kurtuvėnai), For reservation +370 41 370-333, Mobile +370 618 29964 (), [4]. Price for 2 persons 270 Lt/78 €, including two nights accommodation in ***camping.

Buy

Eat

  • Senasis Sodžius, (In front of Saulės Miestas). This is the best place in Siauliai to try traditional Lithuanian food. Service is nice and very fast. Prices are quite low and food quality is great. It is not a big place, but it is very popular, so better avoid comming in lunch hours. Even if you do come in lunch hour, do not be scared of long line there - service is so fast that this you won't need to wait long. Lunch around 5 dollars.

Drink

Sleep

Contact

Get out

Riga (Ryga) in nearby Latvia.

Klaipeda, Lithuania's third largest city is to the south west.

Kaunas, Lithuania's second city is to the south east.

Telšiai, the capital city of Samogitia region.




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