Geographically, Turkey can be divided in 7 regions:
- Akdeniz - region of the Mediterranean
- Ic Anadolu - Central Anat�lia
- Dogu Anadolu - Eastern Anat�lia
- Guney Dogu Anadolu - Southeastern Anat�lia
- Ege - region of the Aegean one
- Karadeniz - region of the Black Sea
Administratively, Turkey is divided in 81 provinces (il) whose names follow of its capitals.
 CidadesBulgaria the west, with Armenian, [[Azerbaij�o ]] and [[Ge�rgia]] the northeast and with Syria, Iraq and [[Ir� ]] the Southeast.
Turkey is inhabited since very old times. For return of 7500 a.C. already had cities in the Anat�lia, also [[�atal H�y�k ]], next to current Konya, that it disputes the heading of older city of the world. Some objects of this time can be found in the Museum of the Civilizations in Ancara.
Some event-key in the history of Turkey:
- About 2500 a.C. - Sprouting of the Hitita empire, that took advantage until s�c. XI a.C.
- From 1200 a.C. - domain of the Fr�gios, Lydians and others
- 547 a.C. - Fond of the Persians. Bloom of the culture Greek in the j�nicas cities ([[�feso]], Mileto, Izmir etc.)
- 334 a.C. - Alexander, the Great one, crosses the strait of Dardanelos. After its death, in the following decade, some kingdoms if form, amongst which if] detaches of [[P�rgamo]
- About 190 a.C. - Conquest romana. In 129 a.C., is established the province of Asia, with capital in �feso
- S�c. III - With the decline of the Roman Empire of ocidente, deep Constantino a great city (Istambul) in the place of the Biz�ncio Greek.
- S�c. VI - the Bizantino Empire blossoms under the command of Justiniano, that establishes the basilica of Sofia Saint, that if became the most splendid Christian time during 1000 years
- S�c. VII - Sprouting of the Isl� in Arabia and its fast expansion
- S�c. XI - Come of the P�rsia, the Selj�cidas Turks had formed an empire based in the city of Iznik and later in Konya. Established the order of the rodopiantes Dervis.
- S�c. XIII - Foundation of the Ottoman Empire. Taking of Constantinopla (1453)
- 1922 - Foundation of the Turkish Republic. Beginning of the reforms of Atat�rk
- 2005 - Official beginning of the negotiation for the acession of Turkey to the Europ�ia Union
 Fuso horário
All Turkey is in spindle UTC +2, that is, two hours to the front of Portugal and 5 hours to the front of Brazil (4 hours during the schedule of Brazilian summer). The country adopts the summer schedule, normally of the end of March to the October end, when the official schedule becomes UTC +3, that is, 6 hours to the front of Brazil.
The religious holidays are mobile, therefore they follow the lunar calendar. Most important they are:
- Seker Bayrami - equivalent to the Eid al Arab Fitr, signals the end of the Ramazan, month of jejum. 23 the 25/10/2006, of 12 the 14/10/2007 and 30/09 the 2/10/2008.
- Kurban Bayrami - al Arab Adha, the party of the sacrifice is equivalent to the Eid. Of 31/12/2006 the 3/1/2007, 20 the 23/12/2007 and 8 the 11/12/2008.
The fixed holidays are:
- 1 of January: New year
- 23 of April: Independence and Day of the Children
- 19 of May: Day of Atat�rk and Festa of Youth
- 30 of August: Party of the Victory - the victory commemorates on the invading forces in 1922
- 29 of October: Day of the Republic
Although it is not a Turkish holiday, in the 25 of April [[Austr�lia|australianos]] and [[New Zel�ndia|neozelandeses]] relembram the Anzac Day. In this same date, in the year of 1915, troops of those countries had disembarked in [[Gal�poli]] with the objective to conquer Constantinopla (Istambul) and had been defeated. Every year, thousands of people travel for Turkey to participate of the religious cult in homage to deceased in that war. As consequ�ncia of the increase of the tourist flow, it is recommendable to reserve lodging and strolls with antecedence.
Since July of 2004 [http://www.turquia.org.br/vpsfiles/NewsPage.aspx?IDProject
 De avião
The main door of entrance of international flights is international airport Atat�rk (IST), located 23km of the center of Istambul. The airport Sabiha G�k�en (SAW) has been increasingly used for the company aerial of low cost. He is 30km of Istambul.
The airports of Ancara and Antalya less are put into motion, but they receive some flights important.
Between the company aerial that operates flights of the Europe for Turkey are: AtlasJet, Fly Air, Onur Air, beyond economic the Easyjet and Germanwings.
 De barco
It has ferries connecting Turkey to several other countries, as Greece and Italy. Marmara Lines operates regular lines of the Italian cities of Ancona and Brindisi to the Turkish port of [[�eşme]]. Of islands Greeks as Rodes, also has frequent linkings with Turkey, especially for the city of [[Bodrum]
 De carro
To enter in the Turkey of car the Green Card of international insurance is necessary. Symbol TR does not have to be marked, that is, the card must be valid for Turkey. In case that contrary, it will be necessary to acquire a Turkish insurance policy in the border. It confirms if its insurance is valid also for occurrences in the Asian side of the country.
 De ônibus
It has many lines of bus between important europ�ias cities and Turkey. They normally arrive at at the country passing for Greece or Italy (she saw ferry) and are relatively cheap, beyond well faster e comfortable of that the trains.
 De trem
The golden times of the Express of the East had passed and today the access of train to Turkey suffers with the slowness and the competition from the modern buses and cheap flights. Still thus, it is possible to arrive at the train country. Of the Europe, it is arrived Istambul of Belgrade (23 hours of trip), Bucharest (20 hours) and Tessalonica (15 hours), of where it is possible to change of train for other parts of the continent.
The pricipais connections with countries of the Middle East come of the Syrian and the Ir�. The trip of train of Tehran the Ancara can lead about 60 hours.
The company of Turkish Railroads is the national authority of railroad transport.
Turkey is a great country, with more than 1500km of east the west, and valley the penalty to take in account these dimensions when planning the form of if moving for the country.
 De avião
The cities most important are served by airports and, in bigger distances, the prices and the comfort to fly can compensate in relation to the buses. The biggest Turkish aerial company is T�rk Hava Yolları (Turkish Airlines), that it flies for all the regions of the country. Its main competitor is Onur Air, that she has lower tariffs. Other company of low cost [includes the Turk-German http://www.sunexpress.de/ Sun Express], Atlases Jet and Fly Air, that also vende tickets in the agencies of the post offices connected to the InterNet.
Some localities do not have daily flights for Ancara or Istambul. The tickets normally can be bought by the InterNet, in the domestic terminal of the airports or in the store of the proper companias.
In any trip, it also considers the value of the transport of the airport for the city, therefore they can significantly increase the cost of its day.
 De barco
Hizli feribot is boats in the style catamaran, that connect some cities, as for example, Istambul with the other side of the Sea of M�rmara. They are sufficiently fast (50-60 Km/h) and can reduce the trip times sufficiently. For example, leaving of p�er of Yeni Kapi in Istambul (soon the southwest of the Blue Mosque), you can reach to less otogar (terminal road) of Bursa in two hours, being of one dedicated hour to the maritime trip the Yalova. Sevi�os similar operates more binding to some parts of Istambul to the Asian side or the places above in the B�sforo. The presence of this type of fast boat if has spread for all the country, where it wants that if it can sail.
 De carro
The minimum age to direct is 21 years and is necessary to carry, beyond the passport, the international permission to lead, the documents of the automobile (if they will not be in the name of the conductor, is necessary a power of attorney) and the policy (automobile insurance) of insurance with visible symbol TR. To who it comes of the Middle East, she is necessary also to have the call ticket license ("Carnet of passage"). The vehicles can remain in the country for up to 6 months.
The circulation rules are sufficiently similar to the ones of Brazil and the Europe, but frequent they are disrespected by the local inhabitants. It is not uncommon to see changes sudden of band and, in the cities, 4 rows of cars stopped in a signal of transit with only 2 bands. You alert short with the horn they are frequent and they only serve to inform to the other drivers whom somebody has there. The speed limits are of 50 km/h in urban perimeter and 90 km/h in the roads. The use of the security belt is obligator for the driver and all the passengers.
The highways, in general, are tarred, conserved and served for ranks of fuel and restaurants well. The signalling, however, is not frequent, the illumination is imperfection and the amount of accidents is high. In the interior of the country, it is common to have that to divide the slow roads with the local population, wagons and other vehicles and without illumination, what it increases the risk of nocturnal accidents.
For who it prefers to rent an car, it has offices of the main companies of alguel in the airports and the cities most important.
 De táxi
They are obliged to use the taximeter. Normally tip for the taxistas is not left - convenient, to round off the value for top.
 Em dolmush
Dolmush was, originally, taxis shared, but today they remain few of these in some cities. Most common they are vans (turkey hens, micron-bus) that they operate in fixed routes and they charge in accordance with in the distance that you will cover. It ahead informs to the driver its destination and pass the money with the contribution of the other passengers, who will be able to ask for the same of you. In the hour to go down, the driver alerts so that she stops.
 De autocarro/ônibus
Turkey has an excellent net of bus interurban calls. The buses are comfortable, have conditional air, private armchairs e, in the generality, good services, especially in great the company.
To otogar (road station) of the main cities they have bus frequently leaving for practically any destination. Beyond the driver, the buses have ��oecomiss�rios of bordo”. In the trips longest, as a driver it assumes the direction when the first one if tires. During the trip, they are offered drunk gratis, snacks and are made stops to each two hours and stocking, approximately, in good restaurants to the long one of the roads.
The more the east of the country, less frequent the buses if become, but exactly places more remote as Dogubeyazit or Van has lines for localities the hundreds of kilometers of distance. A village has of being really very small not to have a bus for Istambul or Izmir at least one time to each two days.
To find the bus correct can require aid. People in charge offering the services are always gifts and can help in the purchase of a ticket, but attention: to the times alone she has a line for the desired destination, but in some occasions, you she can finish seated while other buses for the same local leave while you wait. Therefore, if you she will have available time, she verifies the grating of arrivals and exits of other company. You also can say that she needs to leave immediately (uses the words "hemen" or "shimdy", or the expression "adjelem to var" �� "has haste), and the people will understand that you need to leave soon.
In the case to have some companies operating for the same locality, it looks for to know the size of the buses that cover the line. Generally, the greaters are more comfortable and some lines arrive to place discomforted vans (dolmus) operating in these lines. Another tip is to compare the size of the signboards normally �� "the companies with more bus and routes also have the biggest signboards. If it does not surprise if, the way for some strange and more distant destination, you has that to go down of the bus, to apanhar its luggage and being transferred to another bus, what ��oediretas” or ��oeexpressas” can occur even though in routes. In these cases, the other bus goes ��oecomprar” you and to take it it its destination.
To the times the buses of long distance will be able to release it in some next road ring to a city, instead of taking it it the center, therefore, it does not leave to ask if the final destination is in the center of the city. On the other hand, much company has "arac servile", vehicles that lead to the center when the Otogar is in the periphery of a city, what nowadays it occurs frequently. In the cities as Ancara these vehicles are shared by some company, and a fleet of them, leaving for the some parts of the city, will be to the wait. It would be useful to keep by hand its ticket to prove that you it was in a bus (the majority of these services operates, however, in the base of the good-faith).
The seat inside of the buses is determined, in part, for "koltuk numarası" - the number of the seat in its ticket �� "and part for the custom to seat together the women, the couples and thus for ahead. If it does not annoy, therefore, if to ask for to change to it of place. Generally, being an foreigner, you it will have the best seats.
A tip: although the last row of seats can be private driver-reserve to sleep it, normally it is better to catch a seat in the deep ones, any that is the number of its koltuk, and thus not to be importunado in the biggest part of the trip. This is especially useful when if it travels alone and if it wants to continue thus.
 De comboio/trem
Turkey has an extensive railroad net. Although the tickets are cheap, the trains are extremely slow and normally they are not race for the competition of the comfortable buses of the country and the just-arrivals economic airlines.
The official language is the Turk, who uses the Roman alphabet with some modifications. The Kurd also is said in determined areas. The German is popular as second language and many young has some knowledge of English.
The pronunciation of the Turkish words is almost total phonetic - all the letters are sharp, except the Ğ that prolongates the sound of the preceding vowel. The sounds also correspond, in the generality to the ones of the Portuguese, with some exceptions:
- ı - similar � in the Portuguese (and not i)
- � - as in the German, a sound between and the e
- � - as the French, sharp u with the contracted lips
- c - sound of dj (as the j of jump in English)
- � - sound of tch (as in Czech)
- h - always sharp, has sound of rr
- r - as the r of the word brightness
- s - always as s and never as z
- ş - as ch (key, animal etc)
- y - always sharp (as in the word iyi, "good")
The gestual language is always very useful and to the times most efficient of the one than the words. To say "not", the Turks simply move the head stop backwards raising the eyes and estalando slightly the language. To say "yes", they lower the head and the eyes.
The costs in Turkey, in general, are well cheaper of the one than the European standards and many times even though of that the Brazilian prices.
The Turks are a mercadora people of soul e, in general, negotiating ex�mios. Therefore, except in the case of firm prices, the word of order is to negotiate. This form of negotiation is part of the local culture of purchase and venda and can cause a little of estranhamento to the travellers who are not accustomed (and that many times leave paying more the one than they would have). The insistence of the salesmen to the times also can be irritating. Still thus, it is possible to all make excellent purchases for the country.
- Carpets - four main types, all facts Exist by hand: kilim, the cicim (djidjim is pronounced), sumak and Hal;
- Leather - the city of Malatya is a great article producer in leather;
- Ceramic - produced in Avanos and [[K�tahya]] is interesting and uses old Ottoman reasons;
- Typical musical instruments
- Antiguidades - Important to notice that, in order to prevent the illicit traffic of cultural goods, the Turkish authorities do not allow the exit of the object country, especially the archaeological ones, of more than 100 years.
 Taxa de câmbio
In May of 2006, the quotation of 1 new lira Turkish is of, approximately:
- �'� 0,60
- USS 0,75
- R$ 1,59
The Turkish kitchen is excellent e, except for the vegetarians, has an immense amount of plates to give water in the mouth. In accordance with the Islamic rules, the consumption of pig meat is forbidden.
The coffee of the morning (kahvaltı) served in the hotels and pensions normally consists of a buffet contends bread, torradas, cheese, ham, honey, olives, tea and coffee.
B�rek or the puddle ("potcha" is said) salty stuffed with meat, cheese or potato, or simit (rosquinhas of sesame) is vendidos in tents and stands in the streets and consumed by many people soon of morning.
Fast snacks include:
- Lahmacun - pizza species with meat covering
- Pide, Turkish pizza, a Syria bread with coverings that are served in specialized establishments called pideci.
- Tava, shellfishes to the milanesa, common in the coastal cities
- Mantı - ravi�lis of meat with yoghurt gravy
The restaurants, in turn, serve hot plates substanciosos as the Kebap:
- İskenderkebap - meat in the Syria bread with gravy of spiced, yoghurt and salada tomatoe
- K�fte (alm�ndegas)
- šiš(grilled meat)
- ��p šiš(of lamb)
Very popular they are the mezes, entered that to the times they substitute a complete meal and normally are folloied by rakı(ver section Drinks, below)
The desserts most common include baclavas (crayons candies, watered the honey), s�tla� (type of rice-candy) and lokum, the Turkish delight that consists of sugar bullets of gum.
 Beba e saia
- Coffee (kahve) - the Turkish coffee is served in small x�caras and strong and is encorpado. Attention not to drink the grains that are in the deep one of x�cara. Sade kahve is served pure. Already şekerli, orta şekerli and �ok şekerli take sugar.
- Tea (�ay) also is very popular in the country and, when prepared for the places, it is strong. The apple tea (elma �ayı) is imperd�vel.
- Ayran - a refreshment to the yoghurt base
- Boza, originary drink of Central Asia, is made to the base of wheat, sugar and water. For being leavend, it has a lightly alc�olico text. Its thick consistency and is consumed frozen. Vefa Bozacisi is the known mark more of Istambul.
- Sahlep - another traditional, however hot drink. It is made of milk, root of orqu�dea and sugar and typically decorated with cinnamon. More it is consumed in the winter and served in coffees and patisseries (pastane).
 Bebidas alcóolicas
Although it is an Islamic country, drunk alc�olicas easily they are found by the country. However, to be drunk can cause serious recriminations. The alc�olicas drink consumption all prevents the cost in public during the month of the Ramad�.
- Rakı - a alc�olica drink derivative of the grape and with flavor of anise, fellow creature to arak. The national drink of Turkey is considered. Normally it is served mixed the water and/or ice.
- Wine - the encorpado wine of the Capad�cia is aged in barrels of concrete and has a distinctive flavor
It has an enormous amount of options of lodging in Turkey. Still thus, it is recommendable to reserve in the high season (July and August, Anzac Day etc.). Of November to the April start (except in the Christmas and New Year), many hotels offer reduced tariffs. Some of the best hotels of the world are in the country, but it also has economic hotels, pensions and shelters. Also the charm hotels are common, installed in old houses and with a more traditional environment and decoration "retr�" that it retraces to the past. Although they cost a little more expensive, they are an interesting experience.
The prices, in the majority of the times, are quoted in euros or dollar. Amongst the cities of the country, Istambul is certainly most expensive and the daily ones of comparable establishments can many times cost the double in the city of that in the remaining portion of Turkey.
Normally men and women are not placed in the same room. To the couples that teethe to be together, one sends regards to use alliances of same marriage that are not married, or at least to fill a date of marriage in the fiche of entrance in the place where they will take up quarters.
Campings, cujoa localization is indicated in maps distributed for the services of tourist information, they are only common in the coastal region and the national parks. Compared with the prices of the pensions most economic, the encampment to the times is not advantageous.
The students normally need a special visa. He in such a way has chances of studies for how much informal formal education.
Hardly lessons in Portuguese will meet. Many universities have lessons in English and/or preparatory courses of Turk for the students.
Although many people work in the illegality, the visa of work to be able is necessary to work legally in the country.
The chance most common for foreigners is to work in the education of languages, especially the English and, it is clearly, the native falantes of this language more are valued. The activities related to the foreign commerce also present many chances.
It still has programs of periods of training, works during the vacations, service of au to pair (bab�) and chances of voluntariado.
The historical spite do of earthquakes, terrorist attacks and horrible (and false) the presented image no classic has filmed the Express da midnight, Turkey is more insurance do that many countries of Europe and the register of violent crimes is sufficiently rare. The robberies also are not common and the local authorities treat the visitors with courtesy.
The policemen use blue-marine clothes and caps.
The travelling women must attempt against to some peculiar questions to the Islamic countries, especially in that she says respect to the siege. A series of badly-understood takes the Turkish men to imagine "easy" the women occidental as. If on the other hand, the Turkish women know to get rid themselves of the inopportune boardings with more naturalness (also keeping a necessary level of formality), the occidental women, especially if they travel alone, can be felt importunadas. It prevents of looking at the Turkish men in the eyes, it does not smile for strangers and it prevents to leave to the night in quarters where it has prostitution (Beyazit and Aksaray in Istambul, for example). To use marriage alliance also can discourage some attempts. If necessary, a group of Turkish women is joined it and part helps.
Although the water is treated in some places, it always drinks bottled water (it prevents the ice).
Despite the occurrences of the avi�ria grippe in the country, it does not have immediate risk of cont�gio between human beings. Not frequent places where it has contact with birds and excrements (farms, markets of birds etc.) e eats only cooked foods well. She also prevents plates with vendidos shellfishes to the outdoors, over all in Istambul - they can have been washed with the polu�da water of the B�sforo.
Although he is not obligator, vaccine against diphtheria, hepatitis, t�tano and the p�lio one sends regards to it (normally already applied universally in other countries). Visitors who if dirigem to the coastal regions of M�rmara or the Black Sea can take the due precautions against the malaria. Those that they will be long periods in agricultural areas can be vacinar against the tif�ide fever.
The indispensable medicines widely are found in the country and vendidos without prescription. Solar filter and repellent of insects also can be bought in the country.
- The local religion and customs - It uses appropriate clothes and it keeps an adjusted behavior to visit the mosques. It does not imitate or makes favour of sings it of call for conjunct repeated for muezins, has an important religious content.
- Atat�rk - the governor who revolutionized the Turkish politics, customs and the language is admired by almost all and the Turks are little tolerant to the critical ones to its image.
 Mantenha contato
The telem�veis use technology GSM, offered for three operators (Avea, Telsim and Turkcell - sites in Turk and English). The covering of the country is ample and roaming, including of services of data, costuma to function without problems.
Many bigger hotels offer to InterNet connections without-wire, generally without additional cost.
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