I had been thinking that the Japanese phrasebook lacked a degree of practicality, and I had some things to say about it. After reconsidering, it seems that most of what I want to say can fit into the framework of that phrasebook page.
Japanese Phrases Heard and Spoken
Reading and writing
Reading and writing Japanese are advanced skills which take years of work to gain much real proficiency. Japanese themselves use three different writing systems of various complexity, two of which (hiragana' and katakana) are syllabic and relatively easy to learn with 50 characters each, but the clincher is the set of over 2000 Chinese characters known as kanji. The set of hiragana characters is illustrated below.
Japanese writing uses three different systems. Kanji are the Chinese characters, there are more than 2000 daily-use characters. Hiragana and katakana are two phonetic scripts which have 50 characters each. However, it is only a slight exaggeration to say katakana is italicized hiragana—today, the primary use of katakana is to write words borrowed from foreign languages, much as foreign words are italicized when written in English.
Although students of Japanese, including Japanese children, begin by learning hiragana and katakana, it is arguablly more practical for the traveller to learn a few survival kanji. Knowing the meaning of a few kanji such as 男 (man) and 女 (woman) is practical, when you are looking for the bathroom, for example.
Much is made about the difficulty of learning the 2000 plus kanji, and so students of Japanese, including Japanese children, start with learning to read and write the hiragana and katakana writing system. However for the traveller, it is quite practical to learn a few kanji, which may prove invaluable. Kanji are short, often pictographs, and so it is comparatively easy to remember patterns.
For the traveller interested in learning some written Japanese, consider learning katakana. There is a huge number of foreign words, mostly from English, which are written in katakana. You can not only practice reading katakana, but develop a feeling for how Japanese render English. This can be a big help if you don't know the word for orenji juusu.
There are also several competing systems for rendering Japanese in the Latin alphabet, although the Hepburn system is the most common and is used on Wikitravel as well. Do not be surprised if you see these words romanized differently elsewhere.
Stores and Restaurants
Japanese are serious students of English, it is taught in schools, and it is used in advertising. However, not all English sounds can be pronounced by Japanese. One of the major uses for the katakana writing system is to render words borrowed from foreign languages (not so different how foreign words are sometimes italicized in English). English as used by Japanese has sometimes come to be called "Katakana English". Learning and using Katakana English, which mostly means pronouncing English using Japanese intonation, can be a great help. Although not recommended for teaching English or business communications, use of Katakana English may sound condescending, however when you need to communicate, you might need to use this to be understood.
Famously, Japanese have pronouncing 'R', which often comes out sounding a bit more like 'L'. In Japanese, there is a group of syllables which is usually romanized as ra, ri, ru, re and ro, but the pronunciation is perhaps somewhere in between an 'R' and an 'L'. One textbook actually romanizes these syllables as la, li, lu, le and lo, which looks strange to long-time Japanese students, but may be a more accurate way to understand how to pronounce these symbols.
English sounds which are also a problem for Japanese are 'B', 'V', 'W'. For example, a Japanese may tell you that he is worried about a uirisu, which sounds like perfectly good English to him, but leaves a native speaker befuddled. For both computers and colds, its a "virus".
That Japanese has an extensive vocabulary of words which have been imported into English is another aspect of Katakana English. Fortunately for the English speaker, these words are gradually replacing the traditional Japanese word in many cases. No longer do you need to know kudamono means fruit; just knowing how to render the word in Katakana English, fuurutu, is sufficient.