Tuvalu  is a group of low-lying islands and atolls in the South Pacific that form the fourth smallest country in the world.
It is generally believed that the earlier ancestors came mostly from Samoa, possibly by way of Tokelau, while others came from Tonga and Uvea (Wallis Island). These settlers were all Polynesians with the exception of Nui where many people are descendants of Micronesians from Kiribati.There are three distinct linguistic areas in Tuvalu. The first area contains the islands of Nanumea, Niutao and Nanumaga. The second is the island of Nui where the inhabitants speak a language that is fundamentally derived from I-Kiribati. The third linguistic group comprises the islands of Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti and Nukulaelae. Today, Tuvaluan and English are both spoken throughout the islands. The first European Explorer to make contact with Tuvalu was Alvaro de Mendana y Neyra, a Spanish explorer. He sailed westward across the Pacific in 1567-8 to discover, explore and name a substantial part of the eastern half of the Solomon Islands. On January 16, 1568 Mendana, with his ship Capitana, sighted his first island, which turned out to be Nui, and named it the Isle of Jesus.
The islands became part of the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. However, ethnic differences within the colony caused the Polynesians of the Ellice Islands to vote for separation from the Micronesians of the Gilbert Islands. The Ellice Islands became the separate British colony of Tuvalu and independence was granted in 1978.
In 2000, Tuvalu negotiated a contract leasing its Internet domain name ".tv" for $50 million in royalties over the next dozen years.
The climate is tropical. Easterly trade winds moderate the weather from March to November, while westerly gales bring heavy rain from November to March. Natural phenomena do not occur frequently here, but low level of islands makes them sensitive to changes in sea level. Three cyclones were recorded in 1997.
Nationals of all Schengen Area states may enter Tuvalu visa-free for a maximum period of 90 days in any 180-day period.
All other nationals will receive a visa on arrival, which is valid for one month. This visa is free for nationals of American Samoa, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Belize, the Cayman Islands, the Cook Islands, Fiji, the Gambia, Gibraltar, Grenada, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Montserrat, Nauru, Niue, Samoa, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, South Korea, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Vanuatu and Zambia. For all other nations, a AUD $100 fee is charged.
There is one international airport in Tuvalu, on the island of Funafuti. Fiji Airways  flies from Suva (originating from Nadi) in Fiji to Funafuti Tuesdays, Thursday and Saturdays. Return trip costs around 948 Fijian Dollars including tax (Aug 2011). However, this is among the most unreliable flight services in the world, be prepared to wait a week or more beyond your intended departure date. Due to its monopoly status, Air Pacific has operated an unscrupulous business between Fiji and Tuvalu, now that Air Fiji (which was partly owned by the Tuvaluan Government) no longer operates.
There is one main road in Funafuti in addition to the runway, which is used for recreational purposes when landings are not scheduled.
Motorbike is the best way to explore the island some costing roughly $10.00 per day.
The other islands are only accessible by boat.
English is the language of government and of most business on Funafuti, but Tuvaluan predominates on the outer islands. Samoan and Kiribati, although not the official languages, are spoken as well.
Tuvalu is not a destination for those in search of spectacular sightseeing opportunities. The island nation is not only small, it also lacks any city-like destination or architectural heritage. There are no hills or mountain ranges, no rivers or gorges. And yet, it is a delightful Pacific destination, where your time is well spent in the shade of a palm trees on one of the pretty beaches. Traditional local culture remains very much alive, making the people of Tuvalu one of the nation's best assets. Traditional dancing is performed on special occasions, and the local "maneapa" (the town hall) is your best chances of experiencing one.
The Funafuti Conservation Area on the western side of the Funafuti atoll has some of the best natural sights, and includes reefs, the gorgeous lagoon, channel, parts of the ocean and islands habitats. Its diversity in marine life makes it an excellent place for scuba diving or snorkelling.
The massive stationing of US troops in the Second World War left the island nation with a number of war time remains, including airstrips, bunkers and plane wrecks along the main island of Fongafale and near the village of Nanumea. The tiny island of Motulalo in Nukufetau has an airstrip too, as well as some plane wrecks. If you have any interest in postal stamps, the Philatelic Bureau on Funafuti is a must-see. The Tuvalu Women's Handicraft Centre at the airport is a good place to see and buy local crafts. If you have time however, try catching a boat to one of the outer islands and admire the local people's skills in making ornaments, fans, mats, baskets or woodcarvings there.
The national game is te ano (the ball). Two teams line up facing each other hitting a ball. The objective is to keep the ball in the air as long as possible. This is similar to volleyball.
The official currency is the Tuvaluan dollar ($, TVD), which is pegged 1:1 with the Australian Dollar. Hence, Australian dollars are universally accepted at par in Tuvalu.
There is a handicraft centre and a philatelic bureau on Funafuti.
Cost varies, but is fairly cheap.
There are many lodges that have restaurants that serve food and beverages. They serve many types of ethnic cuisines such Chinese, Italian, and Indian. Fish is abundant.
Bars serve soft drinks and alcohol during meal times.
Guest houses. There are a number of privately run guesthouses on the island of a very basic standard. You will find most of them in Funafuti.
Funafuti hosts a University of the South Pacific extension centre. Motufoua, the country's only high school, is a coeducational boarding school on Vaitupu island. The Tuvalu Marine School, on an outer islet of Funafuti, trains Tuvaluan mariners for service on foreign ships.
The non-native work force is mostly comprised of contract employees from Britain and other foreign countries.
A siren signals when to leave the runway for an approaching plane.
Violent crime is rare, and usually involves alcohol and family disputes.
Male homosexuality is illegal in Tuvalu; therefore, the country is not safe for sexually active gay male travelers.
The power plug used in Tuvalu is the Australian Plug with 240 volts and 50 Hz.
The international dialing code is: +688
Local numbers in Tuvalu have 5 digits, with the first 2 representing the islands as follows:
Funafuti: 20, 21
There is available a GSM network in 900 Mhz, provided by Tuvalu Telecom, with ID: 553-01. (Please review the roaming agreement with your company)This Network is very slow and should only be used for messaging and email.