Travelling with children
This article is a travel topic
Travelling as a family allows experiences to be shared. It can add interest to family time together away from the pressures of work and education. You can gain different perspectives on places when travelling in a group with children. It is often easier to get to meet local people, people can be friendlier, and when picking educational experiences for children you often learn something yourself.
However, it also often means extra preparation to ensure that you can all enjoy the experiences. You have to balance the needs of everyone in the group, and try and avoid many of the additional expenses that can apply to travelling as a group. You may have to deal with bored children in airports or on long trips, extra luggage when they get tired, and some frustration when they complain after going to all the planning effort when you could have left them at home with the grandparents.
Luckily, when you return home the crisis times seem to fade, and the memories of the activities together get remembered.
Try to find a direct flight to your destination, at off-peak travel times. The less time you spend walking through airports and clearing security check points, the better. You are going to have to carry plenty of extra baggage, and this will become a nuisance if you have to keep unpacking. A crowded airport is full of stimuli that can upset/ excite/ bewilder a young child, so travelling at a quieter time will make the journey easier. If you are driving, try to break the trip up into small sessions. Keeping a young and energetic toddler confined to a car seat can be as stressful for them as it is for you.
 Who qualifies as a child?
You know what a child is, but when travelling the definition of a child varies, but normally it is based on age. There may also be minimum weight and height restriction on some attractions for safety purposes. It is also worth noting that often the definition of a child will differ according to hotels, flights and travel insurance. For example while generally we accept that a someone may be considered a child up to the age of 18, travel insurance may sometimes let a child remain on a parents travel policy well into their 20's, depending on whether they are full-time students etc.
If you are flying or driving during the day, make sure your kids are well rested beforehand. You do not want to bring a tired and grumpy child through security, or have them squirming and complaining in the car. Do not overfeed your kids before a trip either. You do not want to get up every ten minutes to go to the bathroom with them and you do not want them to vomit.
The individual guides include child prices for attractions and transport. It is worth reading the details of the attractions to see if it is something that your child may be interested in.
Articles on travel with children to specific destinations:
 By plane
 Tickets and sewarryats
Children under 2 have the option of travelling sitting on your lap and not being assigned a seat. Lap infants often travel free on domestic flights, and at a 10% fare on international flights. If you choose to have a seat for your baby some airlines have an infant rate, but this can be as much as 90% of the regular price. Even if you have to pay the full fare, some airport and government charges are usually not applied to children under 2.
During take-off and landings infants on your lap should be held in an upright position facing you and against you, with your hands supporting their back and neck. Some infants are more comfortable nursing during these periods and most flight attendants will allow it. Saving a feed for the descent can make the baby much more comfortable. With some carriers a lap belt is available that loops into the adult belt and then around the lap infant for take-off and landings.
Consider putting infants with their own seat in an approved car seat appropriate for their age and weight. This is compulsory n the USA, and recommended in other jurisdictions. Still, best to confirm with your airline that this, as some airlines try to restrict carry-on, and other airlines will not permit an unsupported infant in a seat without a car-seat.
Some airlines do not have the facilities for infants to be booked through their website, and you must contact the call centre or a travel agent. You should make sure the airline knows about the infant at the time of booking the ticket. Turning up at the airport with an infant will cause difficulties at check-in.
Infants younger than two weeks may require a certificate from a doctor saying they are able to fly.
If you have infants under 6 months old on a long-haul flights (over 5 hours) you can request a bassinet which attaches to the bulkhead. Needless to say, this can make long flight much more comfortable for the parent and child. For older infants, consider a bulkhead seat Arm rests don't go up (the tray is in the armrest), and you have to stow your carry-on bags in the overhead compartment during take-off and landing since there is no seat in front of you. On the plus side, bulkhead seats have more legroom, often enough for moving around without disturbing the occupant of the aisle seat, and there is no seat in front for the child to kick. Some airlines will let you book these when you purchase tickets, others give them out at a first-come-first-served basis at check-in only. Airlines won't let you place infants on the floor at your feet to sleep.
Children between 2 and 12 must have their own ticket. Children this age are usually given a discounted rate (typically 75% of the adult fare) on full service international airlines, but usually have no discount on discount international or domestic airlines. Discounted children's tickets may have different baggage allowances so check before showing up. Children's meals are available on some flights offering meals. The usual rules for special meals apply, and they must be ordered in advance. Picky eaters may prefer a bag lunch.
Unaccompanied children are usually children under 12 travelling without a supervising adult. Not all airlines accept unaccompanied children, especially discount airlines. An unaccompanied child may be required to travel on a full adult fare, and additional fees may be charged. Unaccompanied children will need to be collected at their destination by a named caregiver and may be returned to their point of departure if not collected. Some airlines do not permit connections and no airlines permit connections to different airlines. In Russia a special official document is necessary that states that the child has permission to travel alone.
Seat allocation is important. At a minimum you want to be seated next to your child, but few airlines will actually guarantee that you are. Make sure you and your child are on a single reservation. Try and reserve your seats in advance, if the airline or agent permit it. Check-in early, and if you are not seated together make sure the flight manager is aware you are travelling with a child. If you still can't get a seats together, just make sure you get a window or an aisle seat, as these are easy to swap on board, whereas swapping a centre seat can be a nightmare.
 At the airport
Airports often have play areas as well as nursery or parent rooms with changing tables and rocking chairs for nursing.
Parents with smaller children can keep their hands free with a baby sling or baby backpack. Slings can be used on the plane with small infants and can give some privacy when nursing. Many parents find a stroller a life saver when flying. Some airports and airlines will let you keep a stroller with you until boarding, and the stroller is brought to the gate at arrival. Some airlines allow one stroller to be check at the gate in addition to normal baggage allowances.
 In the air
Once in the air, flight attendants should be able to heat milk or water for a bottle, and point out which lavatories have changing tables. Pack a small grab-bag with one or two diapers and wipes for changing, since there's not a lot of room to move around in the lavatories and you won't want to bring your whole diaper bag. Flights with meals can include an infant meal with baby food, but you'll want to bring some favorite snacks in case this is not available.
Young infants are often content to nurse and sleep through a flight, while older babies will require some entertainment. Bring small bags of snacks and toys and dole them out every 10-15 minutes so there's always something new to play with. Small amounts of playdough, books, and crayons are good ideas. Avoid anything messy or with small parts that can get lost under foot. Anything too noisy will probably not be appreciated by other travellers. Take walks up and down the aisle every half hour or so and look for other babies and young children. Making a friend (and talking with other parents) can make the flight go faster.
Flying in a group can be fun as children can keep each other busy. On a large plane such as a Boeing 747, you will want to reserve the four seats in the middle. The armrests move up allowing for children to sleep. On smaller planes pair one parent or old child with younger children and make sure everyone is supervised at all times.
Time also passes more quickly for children with video entertainment, like a familiar TV show for younger children.
If trans-continental flights seem too long for children, try planning a stopover or two in between. For example, Air Canada has a five-hour flight from St. John's, Newfoundland to London Heathrow for a trans-Atlantic trip. Trans-Pacific flights are a bit more challenging, but Hawaii and Guam (or in some cases, Anchorage, Alaska) are possibilities. Look at a round globe (not a flat map) for more ideas. Keep in mind this will involve more take-offs and landings, as well as getting from one flight to another, so it's a trade off. In addition, it will probably cost a lot more as well, especially if you can't keep the trip to just one airline and its affiliates.
 By car
Some countries require children to travel in appropriate child car seats when travelling by car.
 Tips for a long car trip
Children do occasionally get travel sick and vomit on long car trips, especially when the road winds. Sometimes they do not give enough notice to pull over properly. Preparing for this eventuality will enable you to recover should it happen, just having water, soap and a cloth stop this being any more unpleasant than it has to be. Consider carrying travel sickness bags if you have older children who can use them.
 Child Restraints
If you are renting a car, most rental companies rent you a child and infant seats at an additional cost.
The availability of carseats and the legal requirement to use or provide one in a taxi varies from city to city and country to country.
Many cities in the United States require the use of a child car seat in a taxi but some (New York City is a prominent one) exempt taxis from these requirements. In London, black cabs are exempt from the carseat regulation but minicabs must provide one on request. If you want your child to be in a suitable restraint, either carry your own or check local regulations before traveling.
Car seat regulations are lax in many developing countries and you may choose to carry your own. However, in many countries, especially in South Asia, taxis may not even be equipped with seat belts. In these countries, you will either have to learn to live without a car seat and safety belt, or carry your own car seat and hire a car equipped with working seat belts.
Several companies make small, portable, restraints that act as travel-carseats. These can be folded up and packed in a day bag for use in rental cars and taxis. These only work, however, if there are adult lap or shoulder belts. In more developed countries a child car seat imported may not have the connections or be certified for use in the destination country, and again you may need to request one when you hire a taxi.
Sharing a seatbelt with a child is dangerous.
 By bus or train
Make sure your children are seated and holding on to something in case of sudden stops. Buses and trains at certain times and places, can often be very crowded.
 By boat
When traveling by ferry with children it is important to find out if there are life vests and other safety/emergency equipment available for smaller children. Keep children close by at all times.
Cruising can be a great way to cover a lot of ground with young children or a fun way to relax with the whole family. While some cruises are specifically geared towards families and children, almost all cruise lines now have some services for families. Before booking a cruise you'll want to find out some specifics:
 Children's passports
Increasingly, any child, including a newborn baby, needs their own passport, rather than being able to travel on their mother's passport. Check with your local authorities in plenty of time to get a separate passport for each of your children. You may also want to allow time to check into requirements for children's passport photographs as some countries apply the same restrictions to photos of babies as they do to photos of adults. (For example, the United Kingdom used to require that the baby had a neutral expression on its face and was looking at the camera with the colour of its eyes visible—a difficult feat for newborns!)
Many countries will require that all adults who have a legal parental relationship with a child agree to a passport being issued to the child. Allow extra time for the application if you think you will have any difficulty demonstrating this.
 Permission to travel with children
Single parents travelling alone with their children can often be asked questions at immigration about the status of the other parent. Usually a straightforward reply will suffice to satisfy the immigration official. A single parent with a different surname to the child may have additional questions to satisfy immigration. Some countries recommend a letter from any legal guardian who is not travelling with you, agreeing to your travel plans, or documentation of court orders granting you sole custody or similar arrangements. Some countries can have an official requirement for a particular type of documentation. Check with the appropriate department of your desination to make sure.
Friends or relatives travelling with children should seek advice from the authorities at the origin and destination as to what, if any, documentation they may require.
In general, if court orders apply to the care of children, for example following a divorce, you may wish to seek legal advice both as to whether there is any risk of them being challenged at your destination. Take particular care if your child or your child's parents are citizens or possible dual-nationals of the destination country.
[add listing] Do
Attractions such as swimming pools and amusement parks generally require younger children to be supervised by an adult caregiver or responsible older child. Age limits vary but if the child is getting in at the child rate, expert supervision is also required. If in doubt, ask.
[add listing] Eat
Many restaurants can accommodate young children and serve children sized meals. However, checking before booking a table is always wise. Some restaurants cater especially for families and offer permanent special deals.
 Infants/ Young children
Breastfeeding is by far the easiest way to feed infants and young children on a trip. There's no preparation or utensils required and nothing extra to pack. While some places, including several US states, Scotland, and Canada, have laws guarantee a mothers right to nursing in public, it may be unacceptable or illegal in others. Usually this just requires some discretion such as choosing a private place or using a sling for privacy, it's best to be aware of legal and cultural issues before you arrive. Mothers with new or colicy infants should be aware of the effect of introducing new or spicy food into their diet as this can change the flavor of milk.
Bottlefeeding Preparing milk or formula for young children while travelling requires some planning. On an extended trip or road trip it may be worth bringing a small electric kettle for boiling water unless you know you will have a facilities available. Bring a bottle brush and soap for cleaning bottles or pumps in bathroom sinks. Check the availability of formula at your destination, or bring your own. Travel may not be the best time to try changing formula. If your child has special needs (such as soy based or organic/wheat-free formula), check that these are available at the destination. Mothers who are expressing and storing breastmilk for bottlefeeding will need to check on appropriate refrigeration facilities.
[add listing] Drink
Places that serve alcoholic drinks may prohibit children. Check the local bylaws before entering bars and restaurants. There may be a special family entertaining area that can be used.
[add listing] Sleep
Many accommodation places are set up for adult singles and couples. Travelling as a group of 3 or more may require you to reserve an extra room or a special family suite. You should always reserve such accommodation well in advance so that the proprietor can make appropriate arrangements, such as installing an extra bed. There may be additional charges for extra people as well.
Hotels often offer in-house babysitting services or can refer you to a local service.
[add listing] Buy
 What to take for your trip
The physical environment when travelling may have a negative affect on your child. To be prepared, you should consider bringing a few helpful provisions:
Children are messy at the best of times. When they are in a car or on a plane, they make even more mess than usual. Do not give them full glasses of juice or watery puddings. Very importantly: keep your bag of cleaning essentials close by - not locked away in the overhead compartment, or in the boot of the car. Messy incidents will happen at the most inopportune times. Here is a basic checklist to consider:
 What to bring back home
 For infants
Travellers, especially those on long trips for business or study, may have children born while outside their home country. Aside from making sure that local birthing or medical facilities meet your requirements, you will wish to make sure that your child's birth is sufficiently well-documented that you can at some point take them home! Check with your home country's embassy about how to register the child's birth and apply for or record their citizenship. Children born in some countries become citizens of that country by right of birth, but this is not necessarily the case: if not, you will not only have to establish their citizenship of your home country but also meet any visa requirements and so on for them to stay with you.
 Stay safe
Your children should have age appropriate knowledge of what to do when lost. Have an age appropriate plan, and make sure everyone knows what they are going to do before setting out.
Younger children should always carry a card with their name, your name, contact details (hopefully including a mobile phone and accommodation details). It is too much to expect a young child to remember all this in an emergency situation.
Consider giving giving older children a mobile phone, or money and instructions on how to use a public phone.
An examples of plans could be for a child to go to last place they knew you were together, while the adult retraces their steps. Another plan includes nominating a particular location to meet on a particular trip.
Teach children who you would like them to approach. Consider whether you would like them to approach someone in uniform, which is something most children will recognise.
 Stay healthy
Children may have special health needs while travelling:
Make sure your child has enough to keep him or her busy, entertained and satisfied for the duration of the trip. Think about all the on-flight entertainment available for adults - drinks, food, movies, sitcoms, soapies, documentaries, newspapers and music. Now double that and you are somewhere close to what your child needs. Pack a rucksack full of toys for each child (they will use it the whole holiday), including one or two new ones that are wrapped - these do not have to be expensive. Don't let them open them until they get on the plane. Build up the excitement for them. If you are packing a gaming console, like a DS, make sure you have extra batteries. This applies to all electronic products.