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Tonga

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Oceania : Polynesia : Tonga
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waves in Tonga
Location
Tonga in its region.svg
Flag
Flag of Tonga.svg
Quick Facts
Capital Nuku'alofa
Government Hereditary constitutional monarchy
Currency pa'anga (TOP)
Area 748 km2
Population 106,137 (July 2002 est.)
Language Tongan, English
Religion Christian (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints claims 52,000 adherents; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Electricity 230V/50Hz (Australian plug)
Country code +676
Internet TLD .to
Time Zone UTC +13

Tonga [1], the "Friendly Islands", is an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. The country is divided into four island groups, or regions.

Understand[edit]

There were pro-democracy riots in Nuku'alofa in November 2006 which left 8 people dead and large portions of the town centre flattened (by fire). Tonga is one of the last absolute monarchies in the world and is based upon an essentially feudal system where the king disburses land and positions without recourse to any elected body. Although Tongan royalty is largely loved and revered by Tongans, younger people have an appetite for stronger accountability and a more modern constitution. An election was held in November 2010. This was planned to lead to a major reduction in the powers of the King and the land-owning nobility in favour of a more democratic form of governance. However, of the 26 seats in Parliament only 17 are elected, with the rest being allocated to the nobles. After some horse trading, it was a noble who emerged as the Prime Minister.

Tonga has an economy with none of the corporate chain stores and with local small businesses providing all necessary goods and services. Tourists were not a target during the riots and you will find Tonga a friendly and appealing place to visit although don't expect the same level of infrastructure as in more developed countries. Rebuilding after the riots in Nuku'alofa has been more or less completed and there are abundant tourism facilities.

History[edit]

The archipelago of "The Friendly Islands" was united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. It became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900. Tonga acquired its independence in 1970 and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It is one of the few indigenous monarchies in the Pacific.


Regions[edit]

Tonga regions map.png
Tongatapu
home of the capital, Nuku'alofa.
'Eua
an unspoilt island just southeast of Tongatapu
Vava'u
a popular yachting destination.
Ha'apai
the least populated group.
Niuas
remote islands to the north of Tonga: Niuafo'ou, Niuatoputapu, and Tafahi are collectively known as the "Niuas."


Get in[edit]

Entry requirements[edit]

Citizens of the following countries and territories are issued a visitor's permit (valid for 31 days) free of charge on arrival in Tonga if they can prove that they have an onward/return ticket to leave Tonga at the end of their stay and sufficient funds to cover their stay: Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kiribati, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Nauru, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norway, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Samoa, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, Vanuatu and Wallis and Futuna.

All foreign nationals transiting through Tonga can obtain a transit visa on arrival and leave the airport during the transit if all of the following conditions are fulfilled:

  • The traveller is continuing his/her journey to a third country by the same or connecting aircraft with a valid ticket with reserved seats
  • He/she has all the documents required for the onward journey
  • He/she has a valid return ticket to the country where he/she can return after going to his/her onward destination
  • The transit time in Tonga is for a period of time that is less than 24 hours

All other foreign nationals not covered by an exemption above must obtain a visa (known as a 'visitor's permit') in advance before travelling to Tonga at a Tongan embassy, high commission or consulate. Tonga has diplomatic missions in Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. The application fee for a visitor's permit is US$60 in China and the US, AU$60 in Australia, NZ$60 in New Zealand and £60 in the UK (see [2] for details). The website of the Tongan Consulate-General in San Francisco provides some information about the visa application process.

If you require a visa to enter Tonga, you might be able to apply for one at a British embassy, high commission or consulate in the country where you legally reside if there is no Tongan diplomatic post. For example, the British embassies in Amman[3] and Belgrade[4] accept Tongan visa applications (this list is not exhaustive). British diplomatic posts charge £50 to process a Tongan visa application and an extra £70 if the Tongan authorities require the visa application to be referred to them. The Tongan authorities can also decide to charge an additional fee if they correspond with you directly.

If you wish to stay for more than 31 days in Tonga, you can apply to extend your visitor's permit at the immigration department in the capital.

You either come in by airplane or yacht.
Typical roadside store on Tongatapu

By plane[edit]

Fua'amotu Airport (TBU) is on Tongatapu around half an hour from Nuku'alofa.

  • Air New Zealand flies from Auckland five times weekly, and from Samoa once weekly.
  • Pacific Blue flies from Sydney and Auckland twice a week.
  • You can also arrive from Fiji (Nadi and Suva) on Fiji Airways, with connections from the USA, Hong Kong, Australia and Samoa.

A crowd of local taxi drivers meets each incoming flight at the airport and they usually charge 25-30 Pa'anga for a lift into Nuku'alofa. The Teta Tours mini-bus also meets flights and will deliver you to your hotel or guest house for 10 Pa'anga. .

By private boat[edit]

Lots of people arrive by private yacht since Tonga, particularly Vava'u, is a common stop on the around-the-world circuit.

Get around[edit]

To get between island groups, you basically have to fly (or sail). Real Tonga Airline operates between the major islands, with flights from Tongatapu to 'Eua, Ha'apai, and Vava'u and from Vava'u to Niuafo’ou and Niuatoputapu. The flight from Tongatapu to 'Eua is, at eight minutes, said to be the world's shortest scheduled flight.[5]

Motorbikes, scooters and cycles can be rented on Tongatapu, Vava'u and Ha'apai. On Tongatapu you can hire a car. There are also taxis. To get around the main island, Tongatapu, Teta Tours and Toni's guest house offer day tours of all the main tourist sights. The speed limit is usually 40kph and this is stuck to by the local drivers. You're meant to also buy a local Tongan driving licence on top of your existing licence before you drive (25 Pa'anga). The roads are good in and around Nuku'alofa but deteriorate the further from the town and the further south you travel.Most cars in Tonga are in a terrible state, maintained on a budget and held together by a combination of 'Western Union' stickers and prayer. The low speed limit helps to keep accidents down. There are buses to various points on Tongatapu from Nuku'alofa although there are no timetables.

Ha'amonga 'a Maui trilithon

Talk[edit]

Tongan is the most widely spoken language in Tonga. English is also widely understood because many of the high schools teach exclusively in English. Many Tongans when asked a question they are unsure of or don`t understand will reply with a "Yes". In this case, ask a follow up question and if the reply is still "Yes", ask someone else.

See[edit][add listing]

  • Tongatapu. Tongatapu is Tonga's largest island with over two-thirds of the country's small population. It is a coral island surrounded by coral reefs. The capital, Nuku'alofa, on the north coast, has a relaxed air, despite the troubles of a few years ago. There are some interesting places to visit, such as ancient tombs and coastal blowholes, and some nice beaches with good snorkelling. Tongatapu also provides a good opportunity to view a unique culture. There are several small islands to the north of Tongatapu that have been developed into resorts. Nuku'alofa has good quality accommodation as well as guest houses within range of the backpacker.
  • 'Eua. 'Eua Island is located only 17.5km east southeast from Tongatapu. It is the highest island in Tonga and is not related geologically to the other islands, being much older. It has beaches on the western side but dramatic cliffs on the east coast, with Tonga’s largest tropical rain forest, which is a great place to go trekking. There are a few small guest houses.
  • Vava'u. Vava’u is a group of more than 50 islands, about 150 miles north of Tongatapu. They are either raised coral limestone or coral atolls. The beautiful harbour opposite the main town of Neiafu is a common destination for yachties sailing the South Pacific, attracting about 500 yachts every season. The waters of the islands are known for their clarity. The area attracts many humpback whales between June and November and there are organised tours to see them. Other things to do include diving, renting a yacht, kayaking; game fishing and kite surfing. There are some good walks on the main island. There are many places to stay both in the capital Neiafu and on the outlying islands.
Niuafo'ou Island from space
  • Ha'apai. Ha'apai is a group of about 60 islands, south of the Vava'u group and north of Tongatapu. Only 20 islands are constantly inhabited. This is where the Mutiny on the Bounty occurred in 1789. The total population is approximately 5,500. There are plenty of sandy beaches plus good diving and snorkelling and the opportunity to see some whales. Ha'apai offers the whole range of accommodation, from budget to upmarket resort.

Ha'apai Lulunga is the southern cluster of the Ha'apai group. To visit here you must get off the ship in Ha'afeva, usually in the middle of the night! Many motor boats cluster around the ship's loading platform and you have to jump onto one of the boats as they sway up and down on waves. Babies and supplies are thrown across the gap to waiting arms like rugby balls. Just about any boat with space will take you back to Ha'afeva (about a 40 minute ride) you may or may not be charged a small fee depending on how friendly you are with the skipper. Most likely you will be invited to stay with someone on the boat during your ride, so make sure you like the person, once you are staying with them it would cause the family to lose face if you go stay with someone else. Ha'afeva is a lovely island with a medium sized village on the harbour side. The back side of the island (referred to as 'Liku' on all the islands) is pristine beaches and forest. You could camp just about anywhere near the sea as the whole shoreline is designated as govt. nature preserve. there are usually 2 or 3 trails that meander back to different areas of liku shoreline on all the Lulunga islands. You will see fascinating coral rock formations and cliffs, pristine sand beaches and forest right down to the water in places. Papayas, mangoes, guavas, lemon and sour oranges, Sour-sop, rose apple (fekika) and Jengkol (indoneseian) (ifi nuts in Tonga), candle-nuts festoon the littoral forest. especially mango trees, perhaps seeds were long ago strewn by some Tongan Johnny Appleseed.

Other islands in the subgroup around Ha'afeva are Matuku, Kotu, Tu'unga, O'ua, Fotuha'a. O'ua is elevated and surrounded by breathtaking cliffs. Kotu is closest to the volcanic islands of Kao and Tofua. and has pristine beaches on the northwest liku. Tungua is likewise a fascinating assortment of lovely deserted beaches. Transport between all islands is relatively easy especially on Sunday when families circulate back and forth between the various islands. You would do well to have some Tongan language under your belt but people are exceedingly friendly and accommodating. each island has an island primary school and teachers are relatively fluent in English should you need help. A hosital is located on Ha'afeva, the most developed of the group. None of the islands have electricity or roads. get around on foot or horseback. Basic foods are available at small shops.

  • The Niuas. The Niuas are reachable by weekly flights from Vava’u. Niuatoputapu is 240km north of Vava’u and has a population of around 1400. It has beautiful white beaches, particularly on the north-west side of the island. Niuafo’ou is the northernmost island of Tonga. It is known as Tin Can island from the fact that in earlier times mail was delivered and picked up by strong swimmers who would retrieve packages sealed up in a biscuit tin and thrown overboard from passing ships. Niuafo’ou is the tip of an underwater volcano. The last eruption was in 1946, after which the whole island was evacuated for ten years. Accommodation on both islands is limited.

Do[edit][add listing]

Apart from a few historical sites on Tongatapu most things to do in Tonga reflect its island nature. Diving, snorkelling, fishing, boat trips, kayaking and kite surfing are all possible. There are some lovely beaches if you just want to laze around. Tonga has some good restaurants and this is the place to come if you like lobster.

Take time to learn a little about Tonga's fairly feudal culture and its many traditions. Go to church. Even if you are not religious the singing can be very moving. Watch tapa cloth being made from mulberry bark and try a drink of kava, the traditional drink, which is a mild narcotic.

Buy[edit][add listing]

The national currency is the Pa'anga (ISO symbolisation: TOP), often called the Tongan dollar and abbreviated to "T$" in English. Denominations are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 seniti coins and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Pa'anga banknotes. Although Tonga is a developing country, prices for many things are comparable to or slightly greater than New Zealand or Australia. Most of what you eat, apart from fish, lobsters, roots and tubers, fruits and vegetables will have been imported. A good meal out will cost TOP30-50, a beer in a restaurant or bar costs about TOP5-6, hiring a car is about TOP50-60 a day and cigarettes are TOP7-8 for a pack of 25.

Tongan tapa
  • Tapa. Tapa cloth is made from the bulk of the paper mulberry tree. Although tapa is found throughout Polynesia, Tonga is the only country where it is still a part of daily life. The bark is stripped from the tree trunk and the outer bark is then scraped off from the inner bark and discarded. The inner bark is first dried in the sun before being soaked. It is then beaten into strips of 25cm using wooden mallets. The continuous beats of the tapa mallet are still a common sound in Tongan villages. The narrow strips are then beaten together into a wider sheet and decorated.

Eat[edit][add listing]

Tongan feasts are a must-do. Tour companies and hotels organize feasts, together with traditional dancing, on several nights of the week on Tongatapu and in Vava'u.

Drink[edit][add listing]

The legal drinking age is 18, however there is no legal purchasing age.

Tonga is lively well into the evening, generally becoming suddenly very quiet at around 11PM. Expect to see people walking around until late. Beer and liquor are available from many outlets, including Fijian, Australian and New Zealand imports to complement the local brews. If you are keen to check out native drink, try Kava (something like liquid novacaine) at least once.

The local beer is called Ikale and is sold in 330 ml bottles in most restaurants and bars (4.50-5 Pa'anga). Or you can buy the same bottles from one of the many 'Chinese' roadside shops or a supermarket for 2 Pa'anga or less. Imported beers are mainly from Australia although there are also some from Europe. Most are sold in 330 ml cans or bottles.

Sleep[edit][add listing]

There is a wide range of accommodation in Tonga, ranging from luxurious to budget. Most have relatively few rooms, though. The Tonga Visitors Bureau [6] has a full listing. See detailed listings on the pages for Tongatapu, Vava'u and Ha'apai.

Work[edit]

If you don't work you don't eat. Tongans don't want to hear that it's hard on the coral beaches lined with palm trees and emerald lagoons. There are many opportunities for skilled trades from the streets to the shops, in the schools to the churches and yes from the markets to the office. This is a hot spot for skilled navigators spanning throughout 169 villages and 150 islands. Some major exports include Vanilla, handcrafts and specialty pumpkins grown for export to Japan. Other agriculture sectors include root crops like taro, tapioca, sweet potatoes, yams, coconuts, bananas, mangoes, papayas, pineapples, watermelons and even peanuts.

If you are on a visitor's visa, you cannot be involved with business or take up employment while in Tonga. You also cannot take courses from an educational institution. It is mostly illegal to try to change a visitor's visa into a visa that allows for employment, so if you intend to have a job while in Tonga, make sure you have an employment visa in advance. Apply for your visa at least one month in advance. If you are already in Tonga and would like to extend it, contact the immigration department one month in advance about the extension.

While employment visas are technically available, the immigration department will probably be reluctant to granted you one as Tonga has a high unemployment rate, and would prefer that jobs be taken up by Tongan citizens as opposed to outsiders. If you're coming to Tonga for humanitarian or volunteer work, you need an employment visa for that.

Stay safe[edit]

One thing to remember when going for a swim is that there are many sharp corals near the beach, especially near Tongatapu and PangaiMotu. It is a good idea to wear a cheap pair of sandals while in the water. There are jelly fish and they do sting! They are also hard to see. It is a good idea to have a bottle of vinegar handy in your bag to help treat any stings.

Stay healthy[edit]

There is no malaria in Tonga.

Exercise the usual caution when snorkelling as the coral can be dangerous.

Respect[edit]

For maximum respect, keep your ankles covered (both men and women). Men, keep your shirt on everywhere except at the beach. Topless men off cruise liners have been arrested and held until after the ship has left! This is a very conservative Christian country. Keep in mind that Sunday is strongly revered, the vast majority of the population will attend religious services, very few shops will be open and there is very little to do. Hotels will be open, as will some restaurant and beach resorts, although mainly to serve expats and tourists. Small shops, including, in Nuku'alofa, a popular bakery, may open later on Sunday afternoon.

TV stations close or play Christian shows on Sundays. Radio stations will also play religious on Sundays. To compensate, the cinema in Nuku'alofa usually has a screening just after midnight on Monday morning.

Tonga features many major Christian denominations; the Latter-Day Saint church especially has a widespread presence. Many of the services are very enjoyable. Strike up a friendship with some locals and you will have no problems finding an enjoyable Sunday experience despite the lack of commercial activity.

Contact[edit]

The best way to get in contact with anyone in Tonga(or book anything) is to go via [www.destinationtonga.net] (email: info@destinationtonga.net) The people working there are very accommodating and helpful in any matter. It is always good to get some first hand advice and this is where you will find it.




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For visitors, the popular "Making Sense of Tonga: a visitor's guide to the Kingdom's rich Polynesian culture" answers a lot of questions. It is out of print now but is available electronically.

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