Terebovlya (Polish: Trembowla) is a town in the Ukrainian part of East Galicia. It is one of the oldest towns in Western Ukraine and used to be an important political centre in the Middle Ages. It was also the site of an important battle between the Ukrainians and the Poles as well as the site of a mass massacre of Jews during the Holocaust.
It is very easy to get to Terebovlya from Ternopil, as the town is on a major road. Buses traveling to or through Terebovlya leave from the Ternopil Bus Station every 15-30 minutes, most often from platforms 2,3, and 4. You can expect tickets to cost around 12.00 hryven (10 if you buy from the driver), and the trip takes about 45 minutes.
Its also possible to take a train or electrichka to Terebovlya, although they are less frequent, slower, and usually a little more expensive. Check the times at the Ternopil Train Station.
Terebovlya is a small town and walking is really the only means of transport you'll need. You can take a walk around the two main streets in less than 15 minutes, and pass by most of its churches and monuments in that time as well.
First built in 1097, the Terebovlya Castle has been continuously modified, destroyed and rebuilt. In 1241, the original wooden castle was burned down by invading Mongolian forces led by Batu Khan. The castle was rebuilt in 1360 by Polish King Casimir III, as Terebovlya was at that time on the edge of the Polish Kingdom. In 1631, after changing hands multiple times between Polish, Ukrainian, and Turkish armies, the castle was again occupied and rebuilt by the Polish military.
In 1675, a small contingent of Polish troops supposedly held off a Turkish army of around 20,000 men for two weeks until they were relieved by reinforcements. During the siege, the commander of the Polish forces, colonel Jan Samuel Chrzanowski, considered surrendering to the Turks, but his wife, Anna Dorota Chrzanowski, threatened to commit suicide if he did. According to the legend, her threat shamed and inspired the garrison to continue fighting. There is a monument to Anna Dorota at the top of the castle memorializing this event. However, in 1687, a Tartar force burned Terebovlya and destroyed the castle, leaving the still impressive ruins that remain today.
The Carmelite Monastery was built between 1635 and 1639. Built in the Renaissance-Baroque style, it is surrounded by protective walls with holes for guns and cannons still visible. It is only a five minute walk away from the bus station, and the grounds are usually open to visitors.
The Basilian Monastery was built during the 16th century and offers a very beautiful vantage point of the surrounding villages and countryside, which probably came in handy when defending against invading Turkish forces. There are several ways to get to the Monastery. The easiest is probably to just ask a taxi to take you there (don't pay more than 20 hryven), but if you are feeling more adventurous and don't mind walking for 30 or 40 minutes, you can try and find an English speaking local who can explain the route through the nearby forest.
There are two former synagogues that are just a few minutes walk from the bus station, although it is hard to recognize them as such. One is now a music and art school while the other is a sports school. Although "synagogue" is a cognate and will be understood by Ukrainians, most locals do not know that these buildings are former synagogues--you'll have to keep your eyes open.
Before World War II, approximately 1,486 of Terebovlya's population were Jewish. During the German occupation, the majority of the Jewish population were kept in a small ghetto, and around 1,100 were shot on April 7, 1943 close to the nearby village of Plebanivka. The current monument stands next to two gravestones--the old Jewish cemetery no longer exists. The only way to get to this memorial is by walking. It is located on top of a hill about a 30 minute walk from the center of town. It is best to try and ask a local for directions, although do not count on many people knowing where it is or how to get to it.
There are no hotels or hostels in Terebovlya, but couchsurfing options with English speaking hosts are sometimes available.
From Terebolvya, you can easily find buses heading north to Ternopil (the oblast capital) or south to Chortkiv (the second biggest town in the oblast). It takes about 45 minutes to reach either destination.
If you are interested in continuing south towards Romania, there are also a couple of buses everyday that go from Terebovlya to Chernivtsi, the closest Ukrainian city to the Romanian border. This bus also passes through Chortkiv, and takes about 3 1/2 hours total. From Chernivtsi, there are at least 3 or 4 buses to Romania everyday, although you can also find small shuttles/van taxis that will be willing to take you as well.