Switzerland (German: Schweiz, French: Suisse, Italian: Svizzera, Romansch: Svizra, Latin: Confoederatio Helvetica) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It has borders with France to the west, Italy to the south, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east and Germany to the north.
The climate is temperate, but varies with altitude. Switzerland has cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters and cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers.
Switzerland is known for its mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) but it also has a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes. The highest point is Dufourspitze at 4,634m while Lake Maggiore is only 195m above sea level.
Switzerland's independence and neutrality have long been honoured by the major European powers and Switzerland was not involved in either of the two World Wars. The political and economic integration of Europe over the past half century, as well as Switzerland's role in many UN and international organizations has strengthened Switzerland's ties with its neighbours. However, the country did not officially become a UN member until 2002. Switzerland remains active in many UN and international organizations, but retains a strong commitment to neutrality.
Switzerland showcases three of Europe's most distinct cultures. To the northeast is the clean and correct, 8-to-5-working, stiffer Swiss-German-speaking Switzerland; to the southwest you find the wine drinking and laissez-faire style known from the French; in the southeast, south of the Alps, the sun warms cappuccino-sippers loitering in Italian-style piazzas; and in the centre: classic Swiss alphorns and mountain landscapes. Binding it all together is a distinct Swiss mentality.
Switzerland can be a glorious whirlwind trip whether you've packed your hiking boots, snowboard, or just a good book and a pair of sunglasses.
Switzerland is a peaceful, prosperous, and stable modern market economy with low unemployment, a highly skilled labour force, and a per capita GDP larger than that of the big Western European economies. The Swiss in recent years have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with the EU's to enhance their international competitiveness. Switzerland remains a safe haven for investors, because it has maintained a degree of bank secrecy and has kept up the franc's long-term external value. Reflecting the anaemic economic conditions of Europe, GDP growth dropped in 2001 to about 0.8%, to 0.2% in 2002, and to -0.3% in 2003, with a small rise to 1.8% in 2004-05. Even so, unemployment has remained at less than half the EU average.
Politically, Switzerland is divided into cantons, but the traveller may find the following regions more useful:
All Swiss cities, villages, regions, (or whatever geographical object) do have official spellings in all four national languages; sometimes they are just the same. However, major cities and tourist regions also know official English spellings. Nevertheless, only a few years ago, the official Swiss tourism office started to advertise major spots and cities with their original, local spelling; with some exceptions of course, such as Geneva, Zurich, and Lucerne for example.
Obviously, it was too disturbing for Anglo-Saxon tourists to remember all the different spellings. But their real spellings are really important to the locals and helpful to know as a tourist of the respective region. So, therefore, the following list will give you the advertised spelling first, followed with its local spelling, if different, then its English version, if different, and its other national spellings.
You could even enlarge these lists with other different, but hardly any more used or even outdated spellings in other national languages (e.g. Bellinzona used to be spelled Bellenz in German or Bellence in French, or even more outdated: Lugano was known as Lauis in German). And this can even get escalated if you would want to refer to the different spellings of the different dialects in the different national language regions of Switzerland: the many 21+ Swiss-German dialects, the four Romansh dialects, the Franco-Provençal from the French speaking Switzerland, or the Lombard in Ticino ;-)
And how to speak them is even another issue, since even if they are written the same, they are quite often not spoken the same way in the different languages/dialects, of course!
Switzerland is a member of the Schengen Agreement.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union. This means that there may be spot customs checks but no immigration checks (travelling within Schengen but to/from a non-EU country) or you may have to clear immigration but not customs (travelling within the EU but to/from a non-Schengen country).
Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are.
Switzerland is not a member of the EU nor the EEA, and is not in the European Union Customs Union. Therefore, most travellers entering Switzerland are subject to customs controls even if there are no immigration controls, and persons travelling elsewhere in the Schengen Area will also have to clear customs. Take note that passengers may be checked twice upon entering Switzerland by land: once by the customs officers of the country they are leaving and another by the border police of Switzerland. There are no border or customs checks for those entering and leaving Lichtenstein owing to the open border and total customs union.
Unaccompanied minors (travellers under the age of 18 years) are strongly advised to have a note of consent from their parents/guardian, as well as a copy of the parents' or guardian's valid passport or ID card. For more information, visit the FAQs section of the website of the Federal Office for Migration (under the 'Border-crossing/Travel documents' heading).
Major international airports are in Zurich, Geneva and Basel, with smaller airports in Lugano and Berne. Flying into nearby Milan (Italy), Lyon or even Paris (France), Frankfurt (Germany), or Munich (Germany) are other options though rather expensive and time-consuming (3h Frankfurt-Basel, 4h Frankfurt-Berne/Zurich, 4h Milan-Zurich, 3h Paris-Basel/Geneva, 4h Paris-Berne/Zurich, 3.5h Munich-St. Gall, 4.5h Munich-Zurich) by train. Some discount airlines fly to Friedrichshafen, Germany which is just across Lake Constance (the Bodensee) from Romanshorn, not too far (1h) from Zurich.
Trains arrive from all parts of Europe. Switzerland is together with Germany one of the most central-lying countries in Europe, making it a nexus of railways and highways to the rest of Europe. Some major routes include:
Common tourist destinations within Switzerland are easily reachable by car, e.g. Geneva from central eastern France, and Zurich from southern Germany. Although Switzerland is now part of the Schengen agreement, it is not part of the EU customs/tariff union. Therefore, EU/Swiss border posts focus on smuggling e.t.c but there is no passport control. Delays are usually short but cars may be stopped and no reason needs to be named. Some delay may be caused by queuing at busy times, and there are often queues lasting hours to use the tunnels under the Alps from Italy such as Mont Blanc, Gotthard etc. Swiss motorway vignettes (40 Swiss Francs) can and should be purchased at the border if your car does not already have a valid one for the year and you intend to use the Swiss motorways which is almost unavoidable. Keep in mind when choosing your means of transport that most cities do not have free parking.
When using mountain roads, bear in mind that they are also used by buses - most relevant on hair pin bends. And most mountain roads are frequently used by the yellow Swiss PostAuto bus. If you see a postal bus, or even much better, hear it approaching a bend by its distinctive three tone horn, hold right back (before the bend!) and let it pass, they always have priority and their drivers count on your passive driving (see also mountain road hints below)!
The following carriers offer domestic flights within Switzerland:
But in almost every case you will be better off taking the train.
The Swiss will spoil you with fantastic transport - swift, disturbingly punctual trains, clean buses, and a half dozen different kinds of mountain transport systems, integrated into a coherent system. The discount options and variety of tickets can be bewildering, from half fare cards to multi-day, multi-use tickets good for buses, boats, trains, and even bike rentals. In general there's at least one train or bus per hour on every route, on many routes trains and buses are running every 30min, or even 15min, but as with everything in Switzerland the transit runs less often, or at least for a shorter period of the day, on weekends, and especially on Sundays. Authoritative information, routes, and schedules can be found at Swiss Federal Railway's (SBB CFF FFS) website, or from a ticket window in any train station.
Almost nobody in Switzerland pays full fare for the transit system. At the very least they all have a Half-Fare Card (French: Demi-tarif, German: Halbtax) which saves you 50% on all national buses and trains and gives a discount on local and private transit systems. Press the '1/2' button (in the French speaking part often called tarif reduit) on the ticket machines to indicate you have this card, and be prepared to hand it to the conductor along with your ticket on the train. Annual half fare cards cost CHF175.- ; visitors from abroad can buy a 1-month Swiss Half-Fare Card cards for CHF120  . You save CHF62.- on a round-trip ticket from Zurich to Lugano, so if you are planning on travelling a lot, it will quickly pay for itself. Children between ages 6 and below 16 (before the 16th date of birth!) pay 1/2 fare for travel around Switzerland. Children travelling with a paying parent or grandparent can travel for free, if the parents purchased a Junior Card, or the grandparents purchased a Grandchild Travelcard. Parents from abroad in possession of any kind of a valid Swiss Pass/Card/Ticket by the Swiss Travel System  can get a Swiss Family Card for free with the same advantages .
The most convenient way to travel with public transport in Switzerland is either a GA travel card (French: Abonnement général, German: Generalabonnament), or for visitors only a Swiss Pass, which grants you access to all national bus (including Swiss PostAuto bus) and rail, all boats, all city transit systems, and the same hefty discount as a half-fare card on privately operated cable cars, funiculars, and ski lifts. Swiss Passes range from CHF272 for a 4-day, 2nd class pass to CHF607 for a month pass, 2nd class. Like the half-fare, you can buy this from any train station ticket office.
Only two trains in Switzerland require reservations: the Bernina Express, running daily between Chur and Tirano and the Glacier Express running from St. Moritz to Zermatt. Reservations is also recomended for the GoldenPass Line from Montreux to Interlaken and further to Luzern, as well as for the Wilhelm Tell Express from Luzern to Flüelen by boat and further from Flüelen to Lugano or Locarno in Ticino by train.
Normally, you do not have to make reservation for any of the public transport system in Switzerland. Though, there are some exceptions. Besides the mentioned scenic trains, some of the yellow bright Swiss PostAuto bus lines require them as well. The easiest way to check this is by the time table . If you find a capital R in a square, then seat reservation is compulsory. And of course, it is also compulsory for most of the international connections.
In general, you will always find a free seat, except for rush hours (departure times between 06:30 and 08:00, and 17:00-18:30) especially on non-stop connections between the major business cities, and in particular between Zurich and Bern, between Zurich and Basel, and between Geneva and Lausanne in both directions. You can easily check this on the online timetable by the statistically based occupancy indication. And during winter season at weekends to and from major ski areas, it can be packed as well. But normally, nobody makes a reservation.
On most trains in Switzerland, tickets can no longer be bought on board, so it is recommended to buy tickets before hand. You will get fined, if you have not got a ticket. Swiss railway kiosks accept credit/debit cards. Nowadays, the locals buy their ticket briefly before departure on the spot at a ticket machine, although they require that for a credit/debit card a PIN be entered. You can also buy a ticket on the Swiss Federal Railway (SBB CFF FFS) website , a so-called OnlineTicket. Or on SBB's smart phone apps  for paperless on-the-mobile-phone tickets, they call it a MobileTicket, but you need to register an account and a credit card first.
A national single rail ticket is always valid the whole calendar day and therefore valid for any train running on the given route during the day, with or without any changes, or more precisely from 05:00 to 05:00 of the next day; train operation, or in general any public transport system in Switzerland, stops for a few hours during the night. A national return rail ticket always costs exactly double the amount of a single ticket. This is not necessarily true for suburban ticket areas of shorter distances, or for cities' local transport systems.
Any national Swiss fare does not change for at least a whole year. So there is no need to buy national tickets in advance and therefore you cannot even buy national tickets online earlier than 30 days ahead. There are only very rare occasions to buy national rail tickets with deductions. And they are only available 14 days before travel date. And you can buy them only online , if there are any at all. And they are only valid for the chosen connection/train of a given date and time! All online bought national tickets are not refundable and only valid for one single calendar day of the chosen date.
The validity and the requirement for reservation for international tickets are quite different, and different for each neighbouring country. So be careful not to mix the Swiss rules with the rules for the international trains from and to Switzerland! As a general advice in order to make things less complicated: order your international tickets with the railway operator from the country where you leave from, since not every operator sells them on foreign grounds. E.g. ticket collection could then become a problem. So check the requesting requirements carefully!
Using the trains is easy, although the number of different kinds of trains can be a bit confusing unless you know that the schedules at a Swiss train station are color coded. The yellow sheet is for departures and the white sheet is for arrivals. Faster trains appear on both of these sheets in red, while the trains in black stop at more stations. For long trips it is often easier to use the website, as it will pick transfers for you. You need not fear transfers of five minutes or less. You will make them, provided you know exactly which platform you arrive on and which one you depart from. Many Swiss commute with a one or two minute transfer!
At the track, the signs indicate the destination and departure time. The small numbers and letters along the bottom show you where you can board the train. The letters indicate the zone you should stand in, and the numbers indicate the class. The class (1st or 2nd) is indicated by a "1" or "2" on the side of the car, these correspond with the numbers on the sign. All Swiss trains are non-smoking — this is also indicated on the side of car, as well as inside.
Luggage can be stowed above your seat or in between (!) seats, or on a rack at the end of the car. Given that hardly nobody makes a reservation in Switzerland, it is perceived to be rude to place the luggage on seats or between the seats so that other travellers cannot take a seat–especially in quite occupied trains! Then expect some strong stares by other travellers or even to be asked in a rather rude way to move your luggage somewhere else. During busy periods, people often stow large luggage (or skis) in the entrance area in between cars. This is usually fairly safe, but use common sense!
The variety of trains is bewildering at first, but is actually quite simple. The routes the SBB CFF FFS website suggests will make much more sense if you understand them. All trains have a one or two letter prefix, followed by a number, for example RE2709, IR2781. Only the prefix, the destination, and the time of departure are important.
There are also a number of narrow gauge railways that don't fit this classification that supplement the buses in the hinterlands, such as the line from Nyon to La Cure or the line from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen.
You can bring your bicycle on almost every train and some Postbuses in Switzerland, with two provisos: you must have a ticket for it (available from the ticket machines, CHF18 (full-fare) for a day pass), and you must get on at a door marked with a bicycle. On ICN trains and some IR trains this is at the very front of the train. Check the time table for every single connection and train you intend to use: if you find an icon with a stroke-through bycicle, then their self-service loading transfer is not allowed. If you find an icon with a bicycle, then a reservation is compulsory (mainly for journeys with Postbuses and international train connections) .
Information for railway fans
In Switzerland nearly all railways run electrically but it is possible to find many steam railways such as the Brienzer Rothornbahn or the Furka Railway for instance. There are many interesting mountain railways of all types. In Switzerland most electric trains get their power from a single phase AC network at 15,000V, 162Hz. This network uses its own powerlines run with 66kV and 132kV, which have, unlike normal power lines, a number of conductors not divisible by 3. Most powerlines for the single phase AC grid of the traction power grid have four conductors. Railway photography is permitted everywhere provided you don't walk on forbidden areas without permission.
Here is short list of the most remarkable railway lines:
As good as the Swiss train system is, if you have a little time, and you only want to travel 1-200 miles, you could try purchasing the world's best footpath maps and walk 10-20 miles a day over some of the most wonderful and clearly-marked paths, whether it is in a valley, through a forest, or over mountains. There are more than 60,000km of well maintained and documented hiking trails .
The trails are well-planned (after a number of centuries, why not?), easy to follow, and the yellow trail signs are actually accurate in their estimate as to how far away the next hamlet, village, town or city is--once you've figured out how many kilometers per hour you walk (easy to determine after a day of hiking).
There are plenty of places to sleep in a tent (but don't pitch one on a seemingly pleasant, flat piece of ground covered by straw--that's where the cows end up sleeping after a lazy day of eating, and they'll gnaw at your tent string supports and lean against your tent sides. And definitey don't do this during a rainstorm!), lots of huts on mountain tops, B & B's on valley floors, or hotels in towns and cities. You could even send your luggage ahead to the next abode and travel very lightly, with the necessary water and Swiss chocolate!
If you like cars, Switzerland can seem like a bit of a tease. They feature some of the greatest driving roads in the world, but can literally throw you in jail for speeding, even on highways. If you stick to the limits, the back roads/mountain roads will still be a blast to drive on, while ensuring you are not fined or arrested. Driving is the best way to see a wonderful country with outstanding roads.
Rentals should have the vignette already paid for that vehicle, but ask to be sure.
Vehicles larger than 3500kg have to pay a special toll assessed through special on-board units that is applied for all roads, not just the motorways.
Speed limits : 120 km/h on motorways, 100 km/h on expressways (ge: Autostrasse(n), fr: semi-autoroute(s), it: semiautostrada/e; often with oncoming traffic), 80 km/h on normal, principle roads outside of villages and towns and often inside tunnels, and a general valid 50 km/h limit inside villages and towns and often only indicated by the name of the village, or town respectively.
The blood alcohol concentration limit is 0.05%. As in every country, do not drink and drive, as you will lose your license for several months if you are cited and a heavy fine may be imposed.
Since 1 January 2014 motorists in Switzerland are required to switch on their headlights or daytime running lights while driving during the day or risk a CHF40 fine.
Driving is on the right side of the road everywhere in Switzerland, just like in most of Europe. Be aware that the priority to right rule exists everywhere in Switzerland on any street, if not indicated otherwise. I.e. that at intersections, priority is given to the driver on the right except when driving on a road with right of way indicated by a Priority Road (German: Hauptstrasse, French: route principale, Italien: strada principale) sign (yellow square with a broad white border sitting on one of its edges ). One exception is when merging into traffic circles (roundabouts), where priority is given to the drivers being within the roundabout. But this is no exception to the 'priority of right' rule, since the street signs indicate that the traffic circles entering vehicle has no right of priority.
You are not allowed to pass trams (normally only on the right side) at a tram stop, if there is no passenger island on which pedestrians can wait. If a pedestrian wants to cross the road on a respectively marked place (pedestrian crossing: yellow stripes on the street), then any car approaching must stop and give priority to the pedestrians. This is a general law valid anywhere in Switzerland, but especially applicable for tram stops. Do not stop on a pedestrian crossing, even during rush hours.
You must always immediatly give way to police, ambulances, fire engines, and buses pulling out have priority.
At traffic lights and railway crossings, you must switch off your engines ("Für bessere Luft - Motor abstellen!", "Coupez le moteur!") to avoid traffic pollution.
Veloland Schweiz has built up an extensive network of long distance cycle trails all across the country. There are many Swiss cities where you can rent bicycles if that is your means of traveling and you can even rent electric bicycles. During the summer it is quite common for cities to offer bicycle 'rental' for free!
Cycling in cities is pretty safe, at least compared to other countries, and very common. If you decide to bicycle in a city, understand that (in most cities) you will share the road with public transport. Beware of tram tracks which can get your wheel stuck and send you flying into traffic, of the trams themselves which travel these tracks frequently (and may scare you into getting stuck into the track as just noted), and the buses, which make frequent stops in the rightmost lane.
Besides the main types of transportation, the adventurous person can see Switzerland by in-line skating. There are three routes, measuring a combined 600-plus kilometres designed specifically for in-line skating throughout the country. They are the Rhine route, the Rhone route, and the Mittelland route. These are also scenic tours. Most of the routes are flat, with slight ascents and descents. The Mittelland route runs from Zurich airport to Neuenburg in the northwest; the Rhine route runs from Bad Ragaz to Schaffhausen in the northeastern section of the country. Finally, the Rhone route extends from Brig to Geneva. This is a great way to see both the country-side and cityscapes of this beautiful nation.
The seven wonders
The seven natural wonders
The official “MySwitzerland” ipad app  from Switzerland Tourism (the national tourism organisation) offers a wealth of useful information and inspiring ideas to help you plan your holiday – anything from a summer in the mountains to a city break. You will find tips for refreshing adventures on the water, breathtaking trips into nature, thrilling train journeys, cultural treats and top events, great accommodation offers – and much more.
Switzerland is not part of the European Union and the currency is the Swiss franc (or Franken or franco, depending in which language area you are), divided into 100 centimes, Rappen or centesimi. This is symbolised internationally and throughout our guides with CHF placed immediately before the amount with no intervening space.
However, many places - such as supermarkets, restaurants, sightseeings' box offices, hotels and the railways or ticket machines - accept euro and will give you change in Swiss francs or in euro if they have it in cash. A bill or a price-label may contain prices both in francs and in euro. Usually in such cases the exchange-rates comply with official exchange rates, but if it differs you will be notified in advance. Changing some money to Swiss francs (CHF) is essential. Money can be exchanged at all train stations and most banks throughout the country.
Switzerland is more cash-oriented than most other European countries. It is not unusual to see bills being paid by cash, even CHF200 and CHF1000 notes. Some establishments (but fewer than before) do not accept credit cards so check first. When doing credit card payments, carefully review the information printed on the receipt (details on this can be found in the "Stay Safe" section below). All ATMs accept foreign cards, getting cash should not be a problem.
Coins are issued in 5 centime (brass, rare), 10 centime, 20 centime, ½ Franc, 1 Franc, 2 Franc, and 5 Franc (all silver colored) denominations. One centime coins are no longer legal tender, but may be exchanged until 2027 for face value. Two centime coins have not been legal tender since the 1970's and are, consequently, worthless.
Banknotes are found in denominations of 10 (yellow), 20 (red), 50 (green), 100 (blue), 200 (brown), and 1000 (purple) francs. They are all the same width and feature a variety of security measures.
"Swiss-made":souvenirs and luxury goods
Switzerland is famous for a few key goods: watches, chocolate, cheese, and Swiss Army knives.
Note that Swiss Army Knives must be packed in hold luggage.
Ski and tourist areas will sell the other kinds of touristy items - cowbells, clothing embroidered with white Edelweiss flowers, and Heidi-related stuff. Swiss people love cows in all shapes and sizes, and you can find cow-related goods everywhere, from stuffed toy cows to fake cow-hide jackets. If you have a generous souvenir budget, look for fine traditional handcrafted items such as hand-carved wooden figures in Brienz, and lace and fine linens in St. Gallen. If you have really deep pockets, or just wish you did, be sure to shop on Zurich's famed Bahnhofstrasse, one of the most exclusive shopping streets in the world. If you're looking for hip shops and thrift stores, head for the Niederdorf or the Stauffacher area.
Swiss employment law bans working on Sundays, so shops stay closed. An exception is any business in a railway station, which is deemed to be serving travellers and so is exempt. If you want to find an open shop on a Sunday, go to the nearest big railway station. If a business is family-owned, you aren't employing anybody so you can open, hence small shops can also open on Sundays.
Swiss supermarkets can be hard to spot in big cities. They often have small entrances, but open out inside, or are located in a basement, leaving the expensive street frontages for other shops. Look for the supermarket logos above entrances between other shops.
For the "self catering":
As of March 2005, Coop launched low-price-line (Coop Prix-Garantie). In Migros, you find "M-Budget" products. Sometimes it's exactly the same product, just for cheaper price. They also offer pre-pay mobiles as cheap as 29.80 CHF, including 19 CHF money on the SIM-Card and the some of the cheapest call rates.
The German discounter, Aldi Suisse started with 5 discount shops in the eastern part of Switzerland in early 2006. The prices are a little lower than at the other supermarket chains, but still significantly higher than in Germany.
There is no Swiss language. Depending on where you are in the country the locals might speak Swiss-German (, "Schwiizertüütsch", expressed in Zürich dialect), French, Italian, or, in the valleys of Graubünden (engl.: Grisons), Romansh, an ancient Romance language. All four languages are considered official languages (except that Standard German  is the official German language, and not Swiss German, which is various dialects). Some cities such as Biel/Bienne and Fribourg/Freiburg are officially bilingual, and any part of Switzerland has multilingual residents, with German, English, and French being the most widely spoken second languages depending on the area.
The Swiss German language situation is insofar exceptional that all Swiss-Germans speak a local dialect as their native tongue (and there are slightly more dialects than Swiss-German cantons), i.e. in all ordinary informal settings (family, friends, job, markets, etc.). However, in school they are also taught to speak Swiss Standard German (, only slightly different from the Standard German spoken in Germany) which they use for official situations (newspapers/magazines, theatre, education, museums/exhibitions, news on TV and radio, national/cantonal/communal parliaments, courts, formal presentations, documentaries etc.) and all formal writing. In informal writing, however, many Swiss Germans, especially the youth and lower educated people, use their dialects, for example in text messages, e-mails, chats and on Facebook and YouTube, though there is often little or no consensus as to how to write certain words in a specific dialect (there is a Swiss-German/Alemannic wikipedia  with articles written in a range of dialects). Linguists have a term for this: Diglossia (). Speaking profanely, you could say, the dialect spoken by a Swiss German person, on one hand, and the Swiss Standard German, on the other hand, are just the two sides of the very same medal: their German language.
Swiss German is no concise dialect group itself, but just a collective term for the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. Alemannic is divided into Low, High and Highest Alemannic, with Highest Alemannic being spoken in the alpine southern part of German-speaking Switzerland (e.g. Obwalden, Uri and eastern Valais) and High Alemannic in the flatter north (e.g. Zürich, St. Gallen and Berne). The dialect of Basel is traditionally considered Low Alemannic, but has become closer to being High Alemannic.
Since the rise of High German (originally spoken in the geographically higher German area, therefore the High) as the Standard German (originally mainly used for trade situations) language since around 1650/1750, German speaking Switzerland moved into a specific situation, since they were the only ones who kept maintaining the dialects as the community's everyday or vernacular language, possibly very strongly based on their profoundly federal, political understanding and subsidiary organisation of the Swiss Confederation. This did not happen in Germany, and in Austria just occasionally, but was not offcially supported.
Swiss German exhibits many major phonetical, lexical and grammatical differences from Standard German, making it very hard to understand to (even native) Standard German speakers, and the Highest Alemannic dialects are usually completely incomprehensible to non-Swiss, with even other Swiss-Germans having a hard time. What makes Highest Alemannic dialects so different is the fact that they missed the so-called Second Germanic consonant shift () taking place between the 4th and 9th century in the geographically higher regions of the German speaking world. The other place where this consonant shift did not occur, neither, was north of the so-called Benrath Line () in northern, lower Germany, e.g. in Bremen or Hamburg. The people from the deep Walliser valley possibly missed it because of isolation from the rest of the world by high Alp mountain chaines in the north, the east, and the south, making it extremely hard to have regular contact with the rest of the world, and to the west, where the Franco-Provencal speaking Savoys lived; another natural, but societal border.
So do not be surprised if you can not understand locals at all, even if you are fluent in Standard German. Again, however, all German-speaking Swiss learn Swiss Standard German in school, so aside from some elderly farmers up the mountains, almost all people can speak Standard German perfectly well. Since Swiss German is the native language of the Swiss Germans, it is no surprise that you will find a lot of dialect-based broadcastings in Swiss media. However, news, movies, (political) discussions, interviews, documentaries etc. are being broadcasted in (Swiss) Standard German on most TV and radio stations. However, local broadcasting are usually spoken in the native dialect of the current speaker. This is especially true for radio channels with a rather younger and/or lower educated audience. On the other side, it is rather unsual that movies in cinemas are being shown in a synchronized version (quite opposite to Germany, France, or Italy for example), but are shown in their original languages with subtitles in German and French (or Italian).
The French version of La Suisse Romande / La Romandie (, the French-speaking Switzerland), Swiss French , is essentially standard French with some differences. It is spoken more slowly, with more of a drawl. The numbers are not the same. Though anyone will understand you when you use soixante-dix, quatre-vingt, quatre-vingt-dix (70, 80, 90), the use of these vanish as you proceed east along Lac Léman: in Geneva (as in French-speaking Belgium) soixante-dix becomes septante and quatre-vingt-dix becomes nonante. — quatre-vingts and huitante are both acceptable ways to say the number eighty. However, by the time you reach Lausanne, quatre-vingts has given way to huitante, and in the Valais it is possible to hear the almost Italian octante.
Another difference is that you may encounter people using the word cornet to define a plastic bag (as opposed to the word sachet that would be heard in France). French has also had a significant impact on Swiss German vocabulary, making it different from the German heard spoken in Austria or Germany. Remember even in German Switzerland, a streetcar is a "Tram", not a "Strassenbahn"!
Swiss-German dialects have quite a few words from French, which are perfectly assimilated. Glace (ice cream) for example is pronounced /ɡlas/ in French but [ˈɡ̊lasːeː] or [ˈɡ̊lasːə] in many Swiss German dialects. The French word for 'thank you', merci, is also used as in merci vilmal, literally "thanks many times". Possibly, these words are not direct adoptions from French but survivors of the once more numerous French loanwords in Standard German, many of which have fallen out of use in Germany.
In many rural areas of French-speaking Switzerland, the related Franco-Provencal language is still spoken by parts of the population, mainly elders. One notable town is Evolène in the Valais where most of the adult population still speaks Franco-Provencal natively. Virtually all speakers, however, also speak French.
Swiss Italian  is basically standard Italian with German and French influences and is the native tongue of most people in Italian-speaking Switzerland, although old and rural people often speak the related Lombard language instead, though in this case Italian is most often spoken in addition to this.
Romansh  is an umbrella term for the Rhaeto-Romance languages descended from the Vulgar Latin spoken by the Roman era occupiers of the region. These are closely related to French, Occitan, and Lombard, as well as the other Romance languages to a lesser extent. There are five Romansh standard varieties native to a particular area. These are (from west to east) Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Surmiran, Putèr and Vallader. These standard varieties are used as the written languages of their native regions, except on the federal and cantonal level where a single standard written language, Rumantsch Grischun, has been introduced.
This said, numerous local Romansh dialects exist and are the native languages of locals, with the regional standard variety being taught in school. Spoken Rumantsch Grischun is rare and frowned upon by many Romansh, meaning most learning material on Romansh (which usually involves Rumantsch Grischun) is rather useless.
Unlike in the rest of Switzerland, where in most cases "unilingual meets unilingual", Romansh people are usually trilingual, also speaking perfect Swiss-German and Standard German; in fact, it is not rare to meet a Romansh person whose native tongue is actually Swiss-German. In the 2000 Swiss census, 35,095 people (of which 27,038 in the canton of Grisons) indicated Romansh as the language of "best command", and 61,815 also as a "regularly spoken" language. Spoken by around 0.9% of Switzerland's 7.9 million inhabitants, Romansh is Switzerland's least-used national language in terms of number of speakers and the tenth most spoken language in Switzerland overall.
If you are looking for quality French courses for adults or juniors, you can learn French in one of the ESL schools centres located in Switzerland. You can also choose LSI (Language Studies International) and go for one of the many schools in their extensive network to learn French in Switzerland.
If you want to work in Switzerland, be aware that you generally need to obtain a work permit.
Switzerland signed an agreement with the European Union that allows citizens of the old EU-15 states to work and search jobs at arms length with Swiss citizens. In these cases you only need a valid passport and have to register with the local administration. The same system applies in general to citizens of the new EU-10 states (Eastern European states in general) plus Bulgaria and Romania but there are limitations on the number of permits. For all other countries in the world the best way is to check with your embassy if there are, for example, exchange programs.
Switzerland has an unemployment rate of about 2.9% (june 2011). Skilled academics will have good job opportunities.
The high level of Swiss salaries reflect the high costs of living, so keep in mind that you must spend a lot for accommodation and food, when you negotiate your salary. Still, if you want or have to make money fast, you can save a substantial amount per month while working in a low-paying job. In general, you work 42 hours/week and have 4 weeks of paid holidays.
Switzerland has no legal minimum salary. The salary depends on the industry you work in, with most companies paying at least 3500 CHF per month, for example as cashier in a supermarket. Overtime work is usually paid (unless otherwise agreed in contract).
If you want to check the average salaries by industry or make sure you get the right amount paid, Swiss employees are heavy organized in trade unions SGB  and always keen to help you.
Most tourist areas in Switzerland have a tourist office where you can call and have them book a hotel for you for a small fee. Each town usually has a comprehensive list of hotels on their web site, and it is often easiest to simply call down the list to make a reservation rather than try to book online. Many hotels will request that you fax or email them your credit card information in order to secure a reservation. In general, hotel staff are helpful and competent, and speak English quite well.
Hotel rates in Switzerland can get quite expensive, especially in popular ski resort areas.
There is also a hostel network in Switzerland for students. Types of hotels in Switzerland include historic hotels, traditional hotels, inns located in the country, spas and bed and breakfasts.
Switzerland is, not surprisingly, one of the safest countries in Europe, but anywhere that attracts Rolex-wearing bankers and crowds of distracted tourists will also bring out a few pickpockets. Obviously, keep an eye on belongings, especially in the midst of summer crowds.
Quite a few Swiss establishments will print your entire credit card number onto the receipt, thus raising identity theft concerns when shopping with a credit card in Switzerland. Therefore, visitors using credit cards should carefully review the information printed on all receipts prior to discarding them. This happens, for instance, in some book and clothing stores and even at the ubiquitous K-Kiosk. This list is obviously not exhaustive; therefore, the visitor must beware whenever using a credit card.
Women travelling alone should have no problems. The younger Swiss tend to be very open with public displays of affection - sometimes too open, and some women may find people getting too friendly especially in the wee hours of the club & bar scene. Usually the international language of brush-offs or just walking away is enough.
Swiss police take on a relatively unobtrusive air; they prefer to remain behind the scenes, as they consider their presence potentially threatening to the overall environment (practice of de-escalation). Unlike some more highly policed countries, officers will rarely approach civilians to ask if they need help or merely mark their presence by patrolling. However, police are indeed serious about traffic violations. Jaywalking (crossing a red pedestrian light), for example, will be fined on the spot. The upside to stringent traffic rules is that automobile drivers are generally very well-disciplined, readily stopping for pedestrians at crosswalks, for example. Generally, you are safe anywhere at any time. If, for any reason, you feel threatened, seek a nearby restaurant or telephone booth. The emergency phone numbers in Switzerland are:
Football (soccer) games are the only notable exception to the above rule. Due to the potential threat of hooligan violence, these games (especially in Basel or Zurich) are generally followed by a large contingent of police officers with riot gear, rubber bullets, and tear gas, in case of any major unrest.
Switzerland has very strong Good Samaritan laws, making it a civic duty to help a fellow in need (without unduly endangering oneself). People are therefore very willing and ready to help you if you appear to be in an emergency situation. Be aware, though, that the same applies to you if you witness anyone in danger. The refusal to render help to a person in need can be punishable by law as "Verweigerung der Hilfeleistung", ie refusal of aid. The general reservation of Americans to avoid entanglement with strangers due to possible future civil liability does not apply in Switzerland, for it would be practically impossible to wage a civil suit against anyone providing aid.
The drinking age for beer, wine and alcoholic cider is 16 (but not in all cantons, so make sure to ask before buying) while the age for any other alcohol (eg spirits, "alcopops", etc) is 18. The public consumption of alcohol in Switzerland is legal, so do not be alarmed if you see a group of teenagers drinking a six-pack on public property; this is by no means out of the ordinary and should not be interpreted as threatening.
Switzerland is not a country of insane civil lawsuits and damage claims; consequently, if you see a sign or disclaimer telling you not to do something, obey it! An example: in many alpine areas, charming little mountain streams may be flanked by signs with the message "No Swimming". To the uninitiated, this may seem a bit over the top, but these signs are in fact a consequence of the presence of hydroelectric power plants further upstream that may discharge large amounts of water without warning.
In mountain areas, be sure to inquire about weather conditions at the tourist information office or local train station as you head out in the morning. They should be well informed about severe weather conditions and will advise you about possible avalanche areas.
There have been problems with police assuming that any Black, East European, or Arab person without an ID card or passport is an illegal immigrant, and treating them accordingly. That could be a considerable problem if you are travelling alone.
Generally there is no problem with food and water in Switzerland. Restaurants are controlled by strict rules. Water is perfectly drinkable everywhere from literally every water tap, even out of all public fountains unless specially marked (Kein Trinkwasser! - Pas potable! - Non potabile!). There are many organic food stores and restaurants available and it is currently illegal to import or sell any genetically modified food.
Learning the mother tongue of the area you will be staying in is a great sign of respect. English is widely understood in Switzerland especially by young adults and teenagers but any attempt to speak the local language is always appreciated (especially in the French-speaking part of the country), even if you're replied to in English. It’s always polite to ask if they speak English before starting a conversation.
Make an effort to at least learn Hello, Goodbye, Please, and Thank You in the language of the region you will be traveling in. "I would like..." is also a phrase that will help you. If you are in the German speaking region of Switzerland, it is generally wise to try to communicate in German rather than attempting to speak Swiss German. In most cases, German Swiss almost instinctively switch to German or English once they notice that they are speaking to a foreigner.
German, French, and Italian all have formal and informal forms of the word you, which changes the conjugation of verb you use, and sometimes phrases. For example, the informal phrase don't worry about it in French is ne t'en fais pas and the formal is ne vous en faites pas. The formal is used to show respect to someone who is older than you, who you consider to be a superior, someone who has a greater rank than you at work, or simply a stranger in the street. The informal is used with close friends, relatives, and peers.
As a general rule, you shouldn't use the informal with someone you don't know well, someone who is your superior in rank, or an elder.
Use the informal with your close friends and younger people. Peers can be a gray area, and it is advisable to use the formal at first until they ask you to use the informal.
Friends kiss each other on the cheek three times (left - right - left). This is the usual thing to do when being introduced to someone who is female (or if you are female) in the French and German speaking part. If it is a business related meeting you just shake hands. Don't be shy as you if you reject the advance it appears awkward and rude on your part. You don't have to actually touch your lips the skin after-all, as a fake kiss will do.
Do not litter. While Switzerland will not fine you (as in Singapore), littering is definitely seen as bad behaviour in this country and in general in German speaking Europe or Central Europe for that matter. Also make sure that you put it in the correctly labeled bin (e.g. recyclable). Some bins actually have times to when this should be done to avoid excess noise!
Be punctual. That means no more than one minute late, if that! Not surprisingly for a country that is known for making clocks, the Swiss have a near-obsession with being on time and arriving late can be considered rude.
Public phones are surprisingly cheap, and have no surcharge for credit cards.
If you stay for some time, it may be advisable to buy a pre-paid cell phone card that you can use in any phone that supports the GSM standard on the 900/1800Mhz bands - they usually cost around CHF10-40 and are obtainable in the shops of the mobile service providers Swisscom, Orange or Sunrise in most cities. Swisscom mobile network coverage is close to 100% by area, even in the mountainous, non-populated areas. Other operators cover mainly cities.
There are also a lot of cheap prepaid cards for local calls from other providers. The prepaid cards of the big supermarket chains Migros (M-Budget-Mobile) and Coop (Coop Mobile) for example cost around CHF20 and include already CHF15 airtime. The cheapest prepaid card for calls within Switzerland is Aldi Mobile : CHF0.14/min Switzerland fixed and Aldi mobile, CHF0.34/min other mobiles. The cheapest prepaid card for international communication is yallo : CHF0.39/min within Switzerland as well as to all European and many more countries (to the mobile and fixed networks). This includes the UK, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. SMS cost CHF0.10. The prepaid cards can be bought online (CHF30 with CHF30 airtime inclusive), in most post offices (CHF29 with CHF20 airtime inclusive) or Sunrise shops (CHF20 with CHF20 airtime inclusive). An other prepaid card with cheap rates offers Lebara Mobile (Sister company of Sunrise). The prepaid card is available for CHF5 with an equivalent talk time and recharge vouchers offer the talk time equivalent to the price of the voucher.
Don't forget that despite several Switzerland-EU treaties, the EU roaming regulations do NOT apply in Switzerland. This means that rip-off prices for calls, texts and data are the norm (€2-3 per minute for phone calls, €15-20 for data). In order to avoid getting a bill for hundreds if not thousands, it's best to avoid using foreign SIM cards in Switzerland altogether and get a local one if you need it.
Many of the internet cafes that have emerged in the 1990's have closed since, probably because Switzerland has one of the highest rate of high-speed internet connections in homes in the world, but almost any video rental shop and most train stations will have a few internet terminals. The tourist office should be able to direct you to the nearest one. The going rate is CHF5 for 20 minutes. Also, you can send email, SMS (text messages to cell phones) or short text faxes from just about every public phone booth for less than CHF1. Some public phone booths allow you to browse the internet. There are many shopping centres and cities (Lausanne and Vevey for example) that offer free wireless internet access: ask the young locals; maybe they know where to go.