Sofia (София) is the capital of Bulgaria. It is also the biggest city in the country with about 1.4 million citizens (including suburbs). Today, Sofia is a dynamic Eastern European capital, distinguished by its unique combination of European and Communist-style architecture as well as many beautiful orthodox churches. Furthermore, it claims to be one of the few European capitals with beautiful scenery and a developed ski-resort so close to it - the Vitosha mountain.
When planning a visit to Sofia, keep in mind the major national holidays (Christmas, Orthodox Easter, 1st and 6th of May, 6th of September). During this period the city is getting empty as most citizens take advantage of the long weekend and travel on vacation. Most small shops and galleries stay closed.
Sofia was founded around 2,500 years ago. Over the centuries, it has been given several names - Serdica , Sredetz and the remains of the old cities can still be viewed today. Because of its strategic location in the middle of Balkans for a while it had been selected for a new capital of Roman Empire.
Near Sofia is the Boyana church, one of the most valuable memorials of Bulgarian and European culture. The church has frescoes, acclaimed by specialists as “the best examples of Eastern medieval art during its twelve century history”.
The decline of Sofia during the Turkish Ottoman Empire was followed by the rejuvenation after the Russian liberation in 1878, when Sofia was chosen as the capital of Bulgaria at the First National Constituent Assebly, and followed by a brisk and straight-forward period of construction.
Sofia has a humid continental climate with an average annual temperature of 10.2 °C (50.4 °F).
Winters are cold and snowy. In the coldest days temperatures can drop as low as -15°C or even lower, most notably in January. Foggy conditions are frequent, especially in the beginning of the season. On average, Sofia receives a total snowfall of 90 cm (35.5 in) and around 60 days with snow cover.
Summers are warm and sunny. In summer, Sofia generally remains slightly cooler than other parts of Bulgaria, due to its higher altitude. However, the city is also subjected to heat waves with high temperatures reaching or exceeding 35°C in the hottest days, particularly in July and August.
Springs and autumns in Sofia are short with variable and dynamic weather.
The city receives an average annual precipitation of 591 mm (23.27 in), reaching its peak in the beginning of the summer when thunderstorms are common.
Sofia Airport  (IATA: SOF) (Template:I) is the busiest airport in Bulgaria and it was built around 1930. Its Terminal 2 is now the active one and was constructed in 2009. The airport is located only 10 km from the city center, in the eastern part of the capital.
Along with the traditional carriers, some low-cost companies traveling to Bulgaria are EasyJet  (to/from London-Gatwick, Madrid, Manchester), Germanwings  (to/from Cologne-Bonn), Wizz Air  (to/from Paris-Beauvais, Barcelona, Brussels-Charleroi, Dortmund, Eindhoven, London-Luton, Milan-Bergamo, Rome-Fiumicino, Valencia).
Terminal 1 (T1) has postal and banking services, a news stand, two coffee shops and one duty-free shop.
Terminal 2 (T2) is larger and has more duty-free shops, three coffee shops with some food offers. Before passport control there is only one coffee shop and a news stand.
Funded Airport Terminal 2 has one Moneyexchange Office in the public Area with rates that are acceptable for an airport (Feb 2012). There is also an ATM next to it. There is also one small and very expensive Money Exchange Office in the Arrival Area, after Passport Control and before Baggage Claim, but with horrible Rates!!!
There is a white shuttle bus running every 30 minutes between the two terminals, you should ask at the information about it. It is free. There are a few kilometers between the two terminals and they are not in a walking distance. Be aware that even if you decide to walk, you may get lost as the path is not marked and it could take you 20-30 minutes.
By bus: Public bus line 84 travels to both terminals - the route is T2 -> T1 - Sofia University (metro station in the city center). Allow 30 to 40 minutes to reach the city center depending on traffic. You can get tickets from the news stands in both terminals, do not rely on buying tickets from the driver! Please make sure to purchase and punch your ticket after you board. You will need an additional ticket for any large piece of luggage/baggage (larger than 40/40/60 cm). If you forget to buy additional ticket for your large luggage/baggage, the fine is 20 leva or €10 (Feb 2012). The best place to change from bus 84 to the metro is Orlov Most (Sofia University metro station). There is also a transit bus line 384, on the route Mladost1 district metro station > T1 > T2 > Mladost I metro station. It takes only 10 to 15 minutes between Mladost and the airport as the bus makes only a few stops in the airport area. It is very convenient for transfers to Mladost and anywhere close to a metro station. The bus currently (Sept 2011) runs two to three times per hour between 5 and 9 am and 4 and 8 pm. The schedule can be seen here  (only in Bulgarian).
By shuttle: Various companies run shuttle services to the hotel and back. These can be found at the airport arrival halls.
By taxi: Taxis in the airport are "regulated" and there are only companies, that are allowed to service the airport :"OK Taxi and "91280". The fare to the city center should be about 10-12 leva. More information here: . Unfortunately there are many touts that will try to ask you if you need a taxi as you exit the departures area. These guys will seriously overcharge you. When you exit the customs/declarations door, turn to your right. You will see an office for OK Taxis in front of you. They speak English so the best thing is to give the person your destination. They will check it and then print out a slip with your taxi number on it. This saves having to explain to the taxi driver! The taxis are out the doors to your right. Go through these and a taxi controller will point you to your taxi. To reassure you, you'll see a big queue of "OK" taxis lined up with "O.K. (973 2121)" written on them in blue writing with the two dots in red. However, if you go straight out to the roadway rather than right, there are unregulated taxis. You should be careful, because there are taxis, which imitate the logo of the O.K. and the phone number. Before hiring a taxi look at the right-front-door window - there should be a tariff. The normal tariffs are: initial fee (about 0.70 lv), daily price per km (about 0.79 lv), night price per km (about 0.90 lv), price per minute of stay (about 0.22 lv), price for ordering a taxi via phone (about 0.50 lv). Please, check these figures and if you see ANY figure greater than 1.00 lv, do not take this taxi!
 From the airport to the Central Bus/Train Station
From the airport you catch bus #84 and get off at the Pliska bus stop (it's a popular place, just ask someone in the bus, there is a building called Pliska). Then from the Pliska bus stop you should catch one of those buses: 404, 305, 413, 214, 213. Any of them will take you to the central bus/railway station.
The Central Bus Station (Centralna Avtogara/Централна автогара)  is located near the city center. The website gives a listing of all domestic and international departure & arrival times and costs. Bear in mind that there are three other bus stations for minor destinations.
Many Bulgarian and International bus operators maintain scheduled lines covering all major domestic and European cities, like many cities in Greece and Macedonia, Istanbul (Turkey), Vienna (Austria), Belgrade and Niš (Serbia) and several times a week to different cities in Western Europe all the way to Portugal.
Timetable of International bus by major bus company MATPU 96:  in Bulgarian.
Trains from Istanbul are temporarily under renovation and thus, will not be made available until the end of 2013. Check with the latest news on trains from Istanbul, into mainland Europe, including Sofia.
The primary trains from Bucharest to Sofia, and back, run twice daily through the border cities of Giurgiu and Ruse. For example, recent trains are scheduled from Bucharest to Sofia in the daytime departing 12:16/arriving 21:33 and a night train departing 20:04/arriving 06:00. From Sofia to Bucharest there are also two trains: a) Sofia 07:45 - Bucharest 17:19 and b) Sofia 19:30 - Bucharest 05:44. One way ticket is 140 Romanian Leu. Discounts are available for under 25s. Passport control and customs takes place in Giurgiu (RO) and Ruse (BG), approximately mid-trip. Check local train stations for more up to date information.
Unfortunately trains to Greece are discontinued (March-2012)
A train on Poduene Station
From Belgrade: 10h, one overnight train. Return ticket cost €41 and €6 for couchette reservation. It is cheaper to buy a ticket until the last station on the Serbian Railways - Dimitrovgrad (€10) and then pay just €2 to the Bulgarian controller once past the border for the remaining of the track to Sofia.
To Istanbul, the train costs 70 leva, the train departs at around 18:30 and arrives at 9:00.
All services are operated by the Bulgarian State Railways , whose schedules are available on the internet in English.
The main railway station (Tsentralna Gara) can be somewhat confusing. Domestic departures go from the main terminal and that is where you can buy tickets for domestic travel. If you want to travel to an international destination, on entering the station from the front, turn to your left, walk past the heated waiting room on your left (and some small shops) and go to the office at the end of the wide corridor with "RILA" on it. It is straight ahead of you. They speak some English and to book a ticket, you will need your passport. They take credit cards.
Platforms can be accessed from the main floor down the escalators at the far left corner. Platform numbering is somewhat confusing: Roman numerals indicate the platform number (I to VI), and Arabic numerals (1 to 12) indicate the actual track. Each platform is divided into East and West. Departures and arrivals are indicated on reliable electronic panels, but, beware, they indicate the track number, not the platform! In any case, leaving by train is mostly recommended if you want to travel overnight to destinations on the Black Sea, since trains for Varna and Burgas will leave late in the evening and get you there in the early morning (a couchette to Varna is 16 leva).
The rail travel and ticketing in Bulgaria is unique. If buying round trip ticket you have to obtain a second stamp on your ticket at the cashier before boarding the train on the return journey. Otherwise you will have to pay a fine to the conductor or be kicked off the train to get the stamp.
For example during our visit in April 2013 we bought round trip tickets at the Sofia train station to visit Plovdiv. The cashier stamped the ticket in Sofia and explained this was a round trip ticket (Sofia-Plovdiv-Sofia) at 14.40 Lev per person. Unfortunately after we boarded the return train, the conductor informed us we failed to obtain a stamp in Plovdiv to return to Sofia (even though the ticket was stamped in Sofia where it was purchased) and had to pay a fine of 14 Lev per person or exit at the next station
All highways in Bulgaria are often under construction.
Access to Bulgaria's Capital is via several entry points:
1. From the North & South via E79/A6
2. From the East - via Thrace Highway E80/A1-A3 or from the old road paralelling the E80 Highway - Zlatitza - Pirdop - Pazardzhik route.
3. From the West - via A1/E80 Liking the city and the Bulgarian-Serbian Border point of Kalotina.
A1 is planned to be from Sofia to Burgas, but as of July, 2012 ends at the outskirts of Nova Zagora.
A2 is planned to be from Sofia to Varna, but ends around Pravets and continues from Shumen to Varna.
A3 is planned to be from Varna to Burgas, but currently has only a few kilometers built.
Otherwise coming from Greece the road E79/A6 is in very good shape, so the 300 km from Thessaloniki are done fairly fast if you don't happen to fall into Friday/Sunday traffic jams in the area of Sofia or Pernik.
Coming from the Republic of Macedonia, via Kiustendil the roads are relatively good but driving within speed limits would avoid you much hassle caused either by traffic police, or road conditions. From Central Europe you can drive almost the whole length on highways (via Slovenia-Croatia-Serbia or Hungary-Serbia), with only the last 100 km between Niš in Southern Serbia and Sofia being heavily trafficked mountain roads around the Nishava ravine in not the best shape.
Sofia has a well-developed and efficient public transport system () that consists of buses, trolleys, trams, subway. The public transport operates from 5AM to about 12AM. Taxis are the only transport option at night.
If you are traveling by public transport with a large suitcase or backpack, be sure to buy a separate ticket for your bag/case or you might be fined!
Sofia Metro train at Tsarigradsko shose Metro Station
There are 15 tram lines, 9 trolley lines, 93 bus lines and two metro lines. Some of the buses cover the area outside the city center including neighboring villages. Useful routes are bus #84 from both terminals of the airport to the center; from the train/bus station to Orlov most - bus #213 or #214 or tram #1, #7 and #18 to Vitosha Street and Nedelya Square, #1, #6, #7 to the National Palace of Culture, #18 to Slaveykov square or #6 to Macedonia square.
The subway (metro) in Sofia has two lines - Red (M1) and Blue (M2). The Red line (Lulin, Obelya) goes through the city center to the southeast (Tsarigradsko shose), where it will eventually connect to the airport. The Blue line goes through the city center as well connecting Nadezhda r.d. (Lomsko shose), Central Train Station with city center ending at Lozentz r.d (James Bourchier). Both lines meet at the Serdika station where one can transfer using a single ticket.
Streets have adequate tiled pavements, especially in the city centre. However, they are frequently uneven and potholed, and walking is further made difficult by parked cars, street vendors and cafes. Except for areas in the very centre, pavements rarely have slopes for wheelchair access or designated lanes for bicycle riders. Pedestrian crossings are numerous and are relatively respected by drivers. Use pedestrian underpasses to cross large intersections, though avoid ones in the suburbs as these are usually derelict.
Mini-buses (marshrutki) stop if you just wave a hand and usually are fast way to go somewhere without need to change the car. You pay to the driver when you get on the car. Prices are 1,50 leva (about 0,75 euro). You need to tell the driver if and when you want to get off.
Taxis in Sofia are yellow. Taxis can be caught on the streets or can be ordered by phone, they arrive fast and are reliable. A drive inside Sofia will rarely exceed 10lv and a trip from the airport to the city center between 8 lv and 15 lv. There are many companies offering taxi services, some of them are OK Supertrans taxi (973 2121), €1 Taxi, "962-22-26", Yellow Taxi (91119) and Radio CV Taxi (91263) with fares around 0,70 leva (0,35€) per kilometer. Please check the phone number and the prices before you board, because there are some taxis trying to imitate the most popular ones, but having outrageous prices (up to 5,90 leva (3,00€) per kilometer) on them and usually hang around hotels and tourist spots picking on unsuspecting customers, its the top line for the per km fares and bottom line for time you need to look at. The general rule is that if a taxi driver comes to you and offers you a drive, never accept it because they will try to rip you off.
Tsarigradsko shose, one of the busiest boulevards in Sofia
Renting a car is possible, but not necessarily a good idea if you are not used to driving here. Be prepared for traffic jams and disorganized traffic. Parking is a major problem. To park you can use tickets for parking in the so-called Blue Zone (sinya zona/синя зона) and Green Zone (zelena zona/зелена зона). These tickets can be purchased from the people wearing bright green jackets, hanging around the parking lots. The tickets should be clearly marked with pen and placed on the dashboard so they are clearly visible. The price is 2 leva per 1 hour for the Blue Zone and 1 lev per hour for the Green Zone. The easier and more convenient way is to text the vehicle registration number from a Bulgarian mobile phone to "1302" - Blue Zone and "1303" - Green Zone. Five minutes before the prepaid time is up you will receive a warning SMS. You can either send another message for another hour or move your car. Zone parking is valid Mon - Fri 8AM-7PM, Sat 8AM - 2PM.
Pay attention to this traffic rule: "If a tram, bus, or trolley stops and is on the left side of your car you must stop in your lane and behind it, ie. public transportation vehicle should be on your left side and in front of your car." It is because tram rails are in the middle of the road and tram station is on the pavement so passengers will exit the right side of the vehicle into the road. Even buses have bus stops in the middle of a road.
Sofia is one of the greenest capitals in Europe, with the big park zones ideal for biking. Slow traffic in downtown is perfect for cycling. On a bike you will save time and will enjoy sport activity. Sofia also has the few bike paths around the downtown area and districts such as Mladost, Nadezhda, Hipodruma. Rent a bike () Bike rental operates from 10AM to about 8PM (April to November). Discover Sofia by bike map or joint to an experienced bike guide.
Sofia is one of the oldest cities in Europe with ruins spread across the city center. It was founded because of the quality of its mineral waters. In the city alone there are 7 independent mineral water springs. One of the springs is in the central area of the city and is accessible for everybody - cross the square behind the mosque, next to TSUM (the intersection of Iskar and Ekzarh Yosif streets).
In the administrative center of Sofia the streets are covered with a specific yellow pavement. It was laid in the beginning of the 20th century and were a present to the Bulgarian Tsar Ferdinand for his wedding from the Austria-Hungarian royal family.
SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library, 88 Vasil Levski Str., ☎ + 359 2 988 28 11 (fax: + 359 2 843 54 95), . 08:30 to 20:30. edit
National Palace of Culture, 1 Bulgaria Sq., ☎ +359 2 916 63 00 (fax: +359 2 865 70 53), . The biggest congress center in the Balkans (a massive monolithic communist-style building). If asking for directions, ask for NDK (en-de-ka), as most Bulgarians refer to it by this acronym.edit
Central Military Club. It`s a multi-purpose monument of culture building in the city center.edit
National Museum of Military History, 92 Cherkovna Str., ☎ +359 2 946 18 05 (email@example.com, fax: + 359 2 946 18 06), . 10.00 to 18.00. ticket price for adults 8 leva (on march-15-2012)edit
Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Studies with Ethnographic Museum, 1 Kniaz Aeksander I sqr., ☎ +359 2 988 41 91 (firstname.lastname@example.org, fax: +359 2 980 11 62), . 10:00 to 17:00. Has a permanent collection of traditional Bulgarian costumes as well as a changing exhibition. Not working on Mondays and public holidays.3 / 1 leva. edit
Earth and Man National Museum, 4 Cherni Vruh Blvd., ☎ +359 2 865 66 39 (email@example.com, fax: +359 2 866 14 57), . 10.00 to 18.00. 2 leva. edit
National Museum of History, 16 Vitoshko lale str. (Take trolley #2 southwest from the corner of Praga Blvd. and Patriarch Eftimi Blvd. Get off at the roundabout at the end of the bus line. Cross the busy Okolovrustino Shosse (ring road) and walk through the trees. The museum is not visible from the road, nor are there any signs.), ☎ +359 2 955 42 80; (firstname.lastname@example.org, fax: +359 2 955 76 02), . The National Museum of History in Sofia contains more than 650,000 exhibits and is one of the largest history museums on the Balkans. The aim of the museum is to provide a comprehensive view on Bulgarian history from the prehistory to present, in as broad an European context as possible. Be prepared to spend several hours as the museum is quite large. About half of the exhibits have English captions.10 leva (just 1 for students). edit
National Institute of Archaeology and Museum, 2 Saborna Str., ☎ +359 2 988 24 06 (email@example.com, fax: +359 2 988 24 05), . 10:00 to 18:00. ticket price for adults 10 leva (on march-15-2012)edit
National Museum of Natural History, 1, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., ☎ + 359 2 987 41 95 (fax: + 359 2 988 28 94), . 10.00 to 18.00. Has four floors of everything from rocks and minerals to insects and stuffed bison. It is a nice way to spend a rainy afternoon.edit
House-Museum of Ivan Vazov, (On the corner of the streets G. Rakovski and Ivan Vazov.). edit
Museum of Sport, 1A Bulgaria Blvd. (National Stadium Vasil Levski), ☎ +359 2 930 07 61. 09:00 to 17:00. edit
Museum of Paleontology and historical geology, 15 Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd. (Inside Sofia University.), ☎ +359 2 930 82 00. edit
National Literature Museum, 138 G. S. Rakovski Str., floor 2, ☎ +359 2 988 24 93. edit
St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. One of the largest orthodox churches worldwide.edit
Boyana Church, 1-3 Boyansko Ezero Str. (Getting here is quite difficult. Take tram #9 or #10 from the stop underneath NDK (National Palace of Culture) to Hladilnika neighborhood (the last stop). Then catch bus #64. The bus stop is just 50 meters away but you better ask someone for directions because there are several different stops in the vicinity. The stop for the church is a small plaza with a few shops near the end of the #64 bus line. Ask the driver or the other passangers where to get off and then walk uphill and turn left.), ☎ +359 2 959 09 39 (firstname.lastname@example.org, fax: +359 2 959 29 66), . 09:00 to 17:00. This small 14th-century church and garden is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The church contains some very well preserved murals. It is located at the foot of Vitosha mountain and is a good starting point for day trips in the mountain. Entrance is 10 Lev, or 2 Lev for students.edit
Church of St. George, (It`s situated behind the Sheraton Hotel.). edit
Hagia Sophia Church, 2 Paris str.. It is located just across the square and to the right from the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. It was built in the 6th century over an even older church. It is a witness of the whole Bulgarian history and is a valued cultural monument. In the 14th century it gave its name to the city of Sofia. It was destroyed several times and during the Ottoman rule it was used as a mosque.edit
Catholic cathedral St. Joseph, 125, Knjaz Boris I (next 2 Sheraton Hotel), ☎ 02/9815548, . Holy Masses: SAT 5,30pm & SUN 10,30am bulgarian; 12,00pm latin; 6pm bulgarianedit
Borisova gradina. It`s the "lungs" of the city, with the Ariana Lakeedit
Yuzhen Park (South Park). Yes, and it's not the cartoon series. A nice park in the south-east part of the city, although a bit to crowded on weekends. Vibrant with open area cafes, entertainment for children and grown-ups, a few ponds with ducks and fishing optimists around themedit
City Garden. It`s the oldest and most central public garden, in existence since 1872.edit
Largo. Ruins of ancient Serdika walls, open air exhibitionsedit
Orlov Most. It`s a bridge over the Perlovska River in the centre of Sofiaedit
Petko R. Slaveykov Square, (along Graf Ignatiev Str. , between Solunska Str. and Rakovsky Str.). 0 - 24. A Famous Square, real Sofia center with a monument of writers father and son Slaveykov's. It`s a biggest open-air book market on the Balkans. There are round benches and street musicians act very often.(42,692268,23,323806)edit
The Sofia University Metro Station, (along Graf Ignatiev Str. , between Solunska Str. and Rakovsky Str.). 0 - 24. Popular with street musicians and dancers(42,692268,23,323806)edit
Arena Cinema, . It`s one of the biggest Bulgarian cinema multiplex. Cinemas in Sofia play all films except children's films in their original language with Bulgarian subtitles.edit
Free Sofia Tour (The free English-language sightseeing walking tour of Bulgaria’s capital), Corner of Alabin Str. and 2 Vitosha Blvd., ☎ +359886993977, . The free English-language sightseeing walking tour of Bulgaria’s capital. Every day, twice a day - both at 11AM & 6PM. No reservation required - just show up! Starting point - the corner of the Palace of Justice (Sudebna Palata).edit
Sofia Bike Tour (National Theatre Ivan Vazov), Dyacon Ignatiy, 5, ☎ +359 885523630, . Visit top greenest capital of Europe on a Bike. Every day Free Bike Tour (April-November) at 11am /5pm. Escape from the city and join to the Bike Countryside Tour around Sofia. Every day(April-November)at 11am. Start Point: National Theater "Ivan Vazov"edit
Sofia Run Tour (English speaking sightseeing running tours), Sveta Nedelya square (St.Nedelya Church), ☎ +359 885 523630, . The Guided Sightseeing Running Tours experience offers the runners who travel for leisure or business to have a good chance to discover Sofia. Learn about the city's history and landmarks with a local Guide runner, without interrupting training. Workdays - FEE. Weekends - FREE. Every Day! Please book online. Start Point: front of the Sveta Nedelya churchedit
Sofia Hike Tour (English speaking hiking tours), National Theater Ivan Vazov (5, Dyakon Ignatiy str.), ☎ +359 885 523630, . Join an Experienced Guide and spend a day of healthy hiking from the protected by UNESCO Boyana church to the Boyana waterfalls and Boyana lake. Every Day free Boyana hiking tour ( April - November )at 11AM. Meeting point: National Theater "Ivan Vazov" We offer more that 10 different hiking tours around Sofia. Check and book online!edit
The New Sofia Pub Crawl (The Best Way to Discover Sofia's Nightlife), bulevard Tsar Osvoboditel 7-9, Sofia, Bulgaria (Meeting point is next to the big head statue in the middle of park Crystal.), ☎ +359876877956, . 9:00 p.m. - 1:00 a.m.. The New Sofia Pub Crawl is the night walk around Sofia’s hidden and unique bars. This event is not for those looking for loud and smoky rooms; instead, you will hear different stories about the places visited and meet other tourists from all over the world. Therefore, a nice international evening with a lot of chatting is guaranteed. The event costs 20 BGN (approx. 11 Euro) and includes some free drinks at most of the places. Every location has its own style and is worth visiting. You would not find these places on your own or just would´t dare to go in.20 BGN. edit
Sofia Design Week - international festival for design and visual culture. It features a professional forum with prominent speakers from all over the world, as well as an extensive program of open events aimed at the broader audience - exhibitions, workshops, discussions, talks, screenings, parties, book openings, events for children, etc. (in June)
A to JazZ Festival open air festival held annually in Doktorska garden, 6 Shipka Str. It is open air and free (at the end of June) 
Water Tower Art Fest - festival for contemporary arts and culture in Bulgaria (in June) 
International Folklore Festival - local and foreign dance folklore ensembles (in July) 
ON! Fest is gathering the most interesting from the modern urban art, entertainment, sport and lifestyle: music, dances, graffiti, parkour, technology, games, japanese culture, urban and extreme sports and parites (in September) 
Da Fest - an international digital art festival, organized by the National Academy of Art, Sofia including exhibition, performances, film screenings, workshops, and lectures. (in September) 
Sofia Dance Week - international festival for contemporary dance. The program consists of performances from Europe, Asia and America representative for different trends in the contemporary dance scene. The parallel program consists of workshops, ateliers, open air events, lectures, projections and discussions, as well as a special kids module with performances and workshops. (in October) 
Sofia Contemporary - Sofia Contemporary presents diverse artistic means, traditional and new media, urban and interior spaces for and with art. The festival discusses various attitudes to the problems of our time, territory, gender, social and political frustrations as well as affiliations. 
Challenges Days - three day festival dedicated to the extreme sports and adventures.It is organized by a large community of mountaineering, speleology, biking sport clubs and outdoor shops and travel professionals and photographers. (in November) 
Sofia Architecture Week - international festival for architecture, a week-long meeting and idea exchange platform for architecture, interior design, landscape and urban environment. Many exhibition open to the general public and with free entrance, presentations, workshops, screenings and urban interventions. Every year Sofia Architecture Week focuses on a specific topic. (last week of November and beginning of December) 
The National Palace of Culture regularly hosts various events, exhibitions and fairs. Check its portal at NDK.bg 
The currency in Bulgaria is the Lev, plural Leva. You will also see the abbreviation lv. (лв.) or the ISO code - BGN.
The currency exchange rate is fixed at 1 EUR = 1.95583 BGN. Exchange rate to USD is not fixed directly, but published by the Bulgarian National Bank  and is used for a benchmark in the exchange offices and banks.
Currency exchange offices and most banks offer a buy rate of 1.95 BGN and a sell rate of 1.96 BGN to 1 EUR. However, at the airport and train station the rates may differ substantially. During business days, it is strongly advisable to use banks for exchanging money. Although there are some really good exchange stalls giving you up to 1.955BGN/EUR, be aware of those who switch the digits giving you 1.59BGN/EUR. It's also possible to change money 24/7 in casinos where rate is good, but you are required to play even some. ATMs on all major credit card issuers (Visa, Mastercard, Amex, Diner's, etc.) are widely available, although you have to watch for your daily withdrawal limit imposed by your card-issuing bank.
Credit cards are widely accepted, but in small souvenir stores or restaurants; you will definitely need to carry some cash.
Souvenirs can be bought many small shops in the subways in front of the old Party House and in the metro station at the Largo. The Ethnographic Museum has a small shop tightly crammed with souvenirs of all kinds from all over Bulgaria (on the right, just as you enter the main entrance). Antiques and souvenirs can also be found in Alexander Nevski square, in stalls just opposite the church.
Vitosha Boulevard. It`s the main commercial street in the centre of Sofia. It is known as the most expensive street in Sofia.edit
The Mall, 115 Tzarigradsko Shousse Blvd. (Many bus lines stop at THE MALL. Choose between bus no. 1, 3, 5, 6, 76, 84, 114, 204, 213, 214, 284, 305, 306, 313 and 604.), . 10:00 to 22:00. a convenience store, Largest shopping mall in Bulgaria; contains also a Carrefour store, large Arena cinema, a lot of cafes and restaurants, etc.edit
Central Sofia Market Hall, Marie Louise Boulevard (Opposite the Banya Bashi mosque.). Has many stalls selling all kinds of food, drink and cosmetics. The second floor has various fast-food cafés.edit
SkyCity Mall, 52 Kosta Loulchev Str. (You can get there by tram No 20, bus No 9, and Route Taxi No 1, 19 and 21.), ☎ +359 2 971 02 13 (email@example.com, fax: +359 2 971 01 89), . 10:00 to 22:00. Also has an entertainment center.edit
You can easily find take away food in Sofia. For less than 2 leva you can get a slice of pizza, a hot-dog or a sandwich. You can get more traditional Bulgarian food in bakeries, offering banitsa and other kinds of pastry. This food is often consumed with ayran or boza . Another possibility is to get a katma, which is a big pancake filled with cheese, ham, jelly or chocolate.
Pizzeria-type restaurants and snack bars can be found all over Sofia. Although many are very uninteresting for the traveler looking for a meal with a local flavor, some include excellent Bulgarian dishes.
Mr.Pizza, 44 Neofit Rilsky Str., ☎ +359 2 988 82 58, . Popular in Sofia, get there early or reserve if you want a table in their courtyard.10 to 15 leva per person.. edit
Baаlbek, (Near Slaveykov Square.). This is great Arab food. Downstairs is take-away kebabs and falafels, and upstairs a small eat-in. Excellent hummus and salads, etc., and cold beer.edit
Trops House, . It`s a fast-food type of place, offering traditional Bulgarian meals and drinks. It can be found in several locations throughout the city center.edit
Raketa Rakia Bar, 17 Yanko Sakazov Str. (In the Zaimov Park), . Raketa Rakia Bar is modern urban style mixed with nostalgic communism. The place is often venue of temporarily exhibitions like children books from the 60s or other items from the communist period. The interior design is interesting and people coming from the Western culture are usually impressed. The menu includes simple but good Bulgarian dishes. Rakia is a typical Bulgarian drink (about 40-50 alcohol, similar taste to brandy) and on the list there you can find more than 50 types of rakia - made of plum, grapes, cherry, pears, with honey and so on.5-15 EUR. edit
Cactus, 20 Hristo Belchev Str, . Located in the heart of the city it is popular among working professionals in the area with its lunch menu offers.5-15 EUR. edit
Hadzhidrganovite Izbi, 18 Hristo Belchev Str, . Bulgarian authentic atmosphere and traditional dishes.10-25 EUR. edit
K.E.V.A. / K.E.B.A, 114 Georgi S. Rakovski Str., . The abbreviation K.E.V.A comes from the Bulgarian "Club for Aesthetic Education of the Artists". The restaurant is located in the yard of one of the National Academy of Theater and Film Arts. At KEVA they prepare their own sausages, breads and host art exhibitions and music.10-20 EUR. edit
Kring, 72 Tsar Simeon Str. (Close to the TZUM shopping center), . Healthy body and soul food, the place has less than 25 seats.edit
Happy's Bar and Grill, (Just across the street from the Sveta Nedelya church.), . Happy's is the Bulgarian equivalent of an American diner, and the Sofia representative of a nationwide chain. There are English-language menus, and the staff (all microskirted young girls, who apparently have to be smiling when they serve you) all seem to have at least some English as well. Portions are generally huge and represent a sort of "watered down" version of their traditional Bulgarian equivalents, although more Western fare is also available.edit
Pizza Victoria, . One of the best Bulgarian pizzas.edit
Pod Lipite, . Very good traditional food. Reservation is required.edit
Motto, 18 Aksakov str. (Motto is on the street right behind the Radisson hotel, and then two blocks East (turn to the right on the first small street behind the Radisson if you are walking from the big horse statue) - it's kind of hard to find as the sign is a small black sign with white lettering.), ☎ +359 2 987 27 23, . This place is always fairly busy with a trendy crowd. The decor is modern and cool, and the people typically good looking. The service here is usually pretty nice, and many of the wait-staff speak English. The food is consistent and enjoyable.5 to 15 leva per dish.. edit
Carrera, 4 Golo Bardo Str., ☎ +359 2 960 28 66 (firstname.lastname@example.org). A fairly modern restaurant over in the Lozenetz area. The decor is well done, the service good, and the food very good. Prices are in line with the quality and style of the place. The wine selection is excellent. They also have a nice summer/winter garden area.edit
Maison Godet – French Wine & Dinner, 17 Al. Stamboliyski Blvd. (Just 100 m west from the Sveta Nedelya church.), ☎ +359 2 980 74 77, . French gourmet cuisine with excellent French wines, own production of the house. Modern and cosy atmosphere with a nice ancient Roman wall inside the restaurant. Reservations are recommended.About 12 lev average per dish. edit
Hadjidraganovite kashti (Traditional Bulgarian Cuisine), 75 Kozloduy ((2 minutes walking distance from the Lion Bridge, around the corner from Ramses II Casino)), ☎ +359 (2) 931 31 48, . 11.30 a.m. - 2.00 a.m.. Amazing restaurant just off one of Sofia's main streets. The decor is old-style Bulgarian/Macedonian and the food is traditional Bulgarian, plentiful and very, very tasty. Entertainment includes a Macedonian walking band and guests are primarily locals. Staff is very friendly and most speak english. Reservations are necessary, even on weeknights.10€-30€. edit
Mehana Karajata (Mehana Karajata), Bul.Ovcha kupel and ul.Zhitnitsa crossroad, ☎ +359 2 8558804, . Try Bulgarian national cuisine - in a traditional Bulgarian home atmosphere. Nicely decorated restaurant with beautiful open garden, typical folk music. 10 EUR. edit
The soup-trend in Sofia started in 2009 and suddenly everyone was into it. The soup-places usually have daily menu of 4-5 different soups, nice interior and reasonable prices. These places are popular for a luncheon during the working days but there are also a few soup-restaurants that stay open 24/7 and are great for party people to have something to eat in the morning after the long night out.
Supa Star (SupaStar), 8 Tsar Ivan Shishman Str. (Close to the Radisson Hotel), . This was the first soup-place in Sofia. The second floor is a must: colorful design and nice view over the street2-3 EUR. edit
Soupateria, 6 Slaveykov Sq. (Close to the intersection with Rakovski Str.), . Traditional Bulgarian soups and interesting international cuisine elements. Salads, pastries.2-3 EUR. edit
Soupateria Take Away, 2 Garibaldi Sq. (Next to the big KFC restaurant), . Take away place, great in spring and autumn because you can grab a cup of soup and eat it at the sun in the nearby benches.2-3 EUR. edit
SoupMe, 55 Neofit Rilski Str (Close to the intersection with Rakovski Str), . edit
Dell 'Arte, 6, Luben Rysev st., ☎ +359899134618, . 11:00 - 00:00. Dell'Arte Restaurant will surprise you with exciting original proposals enviable list of premium wines, exquisite atmosphere and excellent service, and the unique garden is the perfect escape from the the busy world.$$. edit
Halbite beer pubs, Neofit Rilski str. 72, ☎ +359 878737786, . “Halbite” (“The Beer Mug”) is a chain of beer houses dating back to the distant year of 2000, when was created the first one in Sofia. There you can find the best selection of beers, both imported and locally made, served at the appropriate temperature, in a unique mug and with the right dish! Whether you are looking for a lager, stout, wheat, white or fruit beer, you can find it in Halbite – beer for all tastes and all occasions! edit
Many cafeterias and bars are located on Vitosha Street. Most of them are open air places with cozy atmosphere and are very popular in summer. Due to some noise regulations all bars and restaurants in the city center have to close their gardens after 10 pm and guests are encouraged to move indoors. Fines are serious and neighbours would call the police to complain of the noise, so do not be surprised if a waiter or waitress tells you that they are closing the bar at 10 pm, normally they mean that just the garden is closing. This is another reason why sometimes bartenders may refuse to give you a drink if you want to drink it outside the bar.
Clubhouse 19th Hole, Str. Hristo Belchev 6. New Irish bar with a big variety of drinks, great food and good company. In the summer there is a nice outside garden to enjoy your drinks. Also shows every important sports event on TV.
One More Bar 12 Tsar Ivan Shishman Str.  The house where the bar is was built in 1909, in the late 20th c. it became kindergarden. Today's bar owners encourage people to share their old memories and inside visitors can see many pictures of kids from this kindergarden. Cocktails are nice and the place is popular among open minded people from all ages. Drinks start from 4 EUR.
Apartment, . Popular among locals as well as foreigners is the "apartamenta", some sort of private club in the second floor of a turn of the 19th century mansion where you find a series of rooms, all in different styles and wall-drawings, colourful tapestries, etc. Go to the right, get a drink in the kitchen (everything non-alcoholic is 4 lv), and just pick and choose a room which looks cozy enough (shouldn't be too hard to find one with all the couches lying around). If you love the music, there are Mac computers in most of the rooms where you can pick something out of the playlist. Have a game of chess. There is also a Cinema room, if there is nothing running just go in, pick a movie out of the list and start the projection. There is also home-made chocolate and cream and all different kinds of organic drinks like Himalayan tea or Kiwi nectar.edit
Lodkite. In the huge "Borisova gradina" park near the stadium (just ask you way around) you'll find this open-air place, located in an old leisure-park parcour (you know, that type of small water-channels where kid can drive around in little gondolas). The boats have gone and the channels serve as improvised sitting places (basic tables made out of wood planks put between the two sides of the channel). There are also some tables on the court and lights decorating the trees illuminate the scene. The public sound system has experimental electronic music, ambiance, progressive rock, or whatever the DJs feel like. The later it gets, the more you'll find people sitting everywhere on the floor on the trees. On warm summer nights, this place is a must-be.edit
Yalta, 20, Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd.. * Blender, National Palace of Culture, . In the subway with the fountains, in front of the Metro station. House music10-15 BGN (5-7,50 EUR). edit10-15 BGN (5-7,50 EUR). edit
Mixtape 5, National Palace of Culture, . In the subway under the Lover's Bridge. Electro swing, hip-hop and alternative music parties5-15 BGN (2,5-7,50 EUR). edit
The largest discos in Sofia are concentrated in Students' town (Studentski grad) in the southern part of the city and can be reached by buses #94 (from Sofia university and Culture palace), #280 (from Sofia University, Orlov most) and #102. The last bus to Studentski grad departs from the city center at about 11.30 PM (from Sofia University and Culture Palace). The entrance fee for most discos is between 1 and 5 leva (€0.5 - 2.5). Discos that can be visited there include: Jim Beam, Plazza, Maskata, Stroezha.
Levitt Hostel, ☎ +359 885640012, . Situated in the heart of Sofia’s main shopping, business and historical attractions, Levitt Hostel is the only hostel in Sofia positioned at world-famous Vitosha Boulevard. * Art Hostel, 21/A, Angel Kanchev str., provides cheap accommodation and a friendly atmosphere where tourists and locals mingle in the small basement bar. Dormitory beds start from 12€ (09/2011), "The Guardian" says: "Probably the coolest youth-hostel in Europe". *Canape Connection Hostel, 12 A William Gladstone Street, ☎ +359 2 441 63 73 (email@example.com), . checkin: 14h; checkout: 12h. A new generation hostel that offers chill-out atmosphere in a small charming house in the city center. The spacious canopy beds ensure your good night-rest, while the rich and healthy home-made breakfast gives you a great start in the mornings.€11-16. edit€11-16. edit
Crosspoint Sofia Hostel (КросПойнтСофияХостел), #6, Parensov Street (Just a block away from Patriarh Evtimiy Square, and some 500 m away from the Parliament.), ☎ +359 896511179, +359 888455699 (firstname.lastname@example.org), . checkin: 12 am; checkout: 11:45 am. A brand new hostel with a friendly atmosphere.Free Wi-Fi; 1m-wide spacious and very comfortable beds; metal lockers. Offers mixed and female dorms as well as private rooms. Great young staff with an attitude working there.€9-18. (42.689865,23.328756)edit
Hostel Lavele, 14 Lavele St (behind BulBank, which is in front of Sveta Nedelya Church.), ☎ +359 884 08 02 83 (email@example.com), . Cozy hostel with fantastic rooms and comfortable beds. Not a party hostel, but has a good staff that loves to help out and create a lively social atmosphere. Hidden in a small quite street. Good breakfast included in the morning including homemade yogurt and bread, filter coffee, and plenty more to fill you up. Lots of good maps and information about Sofia, including a really cheap day trip to Rila Monastery. Internet in all of the rooms.From €10 for dorm.. edit
Le Freak Deluxesofia.firstname.lastname@example.org a cheap non-profit hostel. Twenty minute tram ride from centre and with a bus stop directly on the front gates. Running on a donation basis with 300лв (approx. €153, £122 or $244) being the minimum donation which entitles you to a stay of up to one month. Le Freak Deluxe as a seasonal alternative also provides camping facilities for 200лв per month - please see website for details.
Hostel Mostel - has a huge lounge to chill out, you can browse the net on modern computers. All en-suite dorm rooms, trips to Rila Monastery are run daily. From €9.
Nightingale Hostel, #2A, Petko R. Slaveykov Square (Close to the corner of Solunska Str. and Graf Ignatiev Str.), ☎ +359877214888, +35929801583 (email@example.com), . checkin: 2 pm; checkout: 12 am. At Famous Slaveykov Square/center of the downtown/, a non-smoking eco hostel provides not only beds/rooms but it is a social place with air-conditioning, common/TV room and lobby area. Breakfast, kitchen, PC and WiFi internet, lockers, maps, call a taxi, book a club, check timetables service, hot showers in renovated and sexes separated toilets and 24h reception desk. Laundry, pick up, meals and drinks are available. Friendly and talkative staff. A lot of info for local life.€7-12. (42.692268,23,323806)edit
Orient Express Hostel - Sofia 8A Christo Belchev Str. - This small hostel offers a variety of room options. From €8,5.
Sofia Guesthouse, offers clean accommodation at the exact city center for €9 inc. breakfast.
Holiday Inn Sofia, 111 Alexandar Malinov Blvd, ☎ +359 2 8070707, . Modern five star hotel offering conference facilities and spa centre.Rooms from €68. edit
Holiday Village Diplomat is near Vitosha mountain and 20 min away from the city centre. Spacious rooms, large park area and friendly staff.
Maxim Hotelhotel_maxim@abv.bg A hotel 5 min walking distance from the train/bus station and 5 min away in the opposite direction from downtown Sofia. It is a cute hotel with a nice bedroom and also a living/TV room, large private bathroom and includes breakfast buffet in the morning. Only negative is they do not have an elevator. Cost in slow season was €60 for 2 people, €50 for one person.
Maria Luisa Hotel occupies an exquisite building dating back to the turn of 20th century and listed as one of Bulgaria's cultural monuments of national significance. Maria Luisa Hotel offers a combination of the standards and services found in a luxury hotel plus the privacy and independence of one's own home.
Sheraton Sofia Hotel Balkan, 5, Sveta Nedelya Sq. (Opposite the statue of Sofia and Sveta Nedelya Church), ☎ (359)(2) 9816541, . checkin: 14.00; checkout: 12.00. Impressive 5-storey hotel, in classical design, houses 184 rooms, including 19 suites. All rooms are soundproof, with air condition control, direct dial phone, message alert, TV with satellite program, radio, mini bar.edit
Park Inn by Radisson Sofia Hotel, Atanas Dukov Str. 36, ☎ +359 2 861 5700, . Set in a building that resembles a baroque castle, this hotel offers 77 rooms as well as 36 one or two bedroom apartments.edit
If you have a car, you are recommended to park it in a paid guarded lot. Parking in the center is difficult; although you can find free spaces, the Bulgarian police tends to behave harshly towards foreign license plates. Even though the other cars appear to be parked legitimately, double check that there are no signs or pavement markings prohibiting it. If you drive out of the city (or enter the country by road) you must have a vignette (винетка) on every high-way. Buy it right away at the border (even though no one will tell you to and there may not be signs) or before leaving Sofia(rental car) from any fuel station. The price (2011) is 10 leva for one week - this is the shortest period available, also one-month and one-year vignettes are available. You must place it on the front window, in the bottom right corner. The fine, if you forget the vignette, is about 200 leva.
Car lights are compulsory at all times.
Pedestrians should be careful since Bulgarian drivers do not yield right of way to those on foot.
Generally at night, you should avoid the area around the Bus and Train Station, Maria Luiza Blvd, the Parks (around the Palace of Culture and Borisova) and the Lions' Bridge (Lavov Most). This is especially true for single women and girls. Junkies get high there, prostitutes (both female and transsexual) offer their "services", some people might want to tempt you with touts of contraband (stolen, illegal, etc.) and/or then try to mug you. These areas are also frequented with the homeless and the drunk. If your hotel is in the area you'll be alright, just don't hang around it unnecessarily. Try to act like you are familiar with the area (and farmiliarize yourself during the day) and look like a local. As long as you avoid the poorly lit areas, the centre is okay, stick to the well-lit areas such as Vitoshka, the Largo, the Sheraton hotel, the Ivan Vazov theater and Voennia Klub (Military Club). It is wise to choose a hotel/hostel in a better location, such as the ones listed above.
Do not get into conflict with locals especially if they seem aggressive or drunk. Avoid football fan groups, they tend to be drunk and aggressive. Avoid wearing football shirts or scarves of the Sofia-based football teams, especially on match days.
On top of it all there are strong allegations of deep-rooted corruption in the Bulgarian justice system. Foreigners may find themselves in serious difficulty if they get into any legal trouble.
There are many other reports of violence on foreigners in Sofia, although all of them were 'aggravated' cases such as a person trying to illegally buy documents or drugs.
Be careful with taxis, make sure you check the prices first before you get in (the fare is per kilometer and it should be something like 0.59 during the day and 0.70 during the night, avoid cabs that display their fare as above 1.00), also make sure the cab has the driver's card on the front with his name.
Also, be wary of money exchange shops. Some of them exchange money for generally lower rates than displayed on the exchange rate panel. Go to banks, otherwise you can easily become a victim and if you want your money back the security guard might intimidate you, rough you up or physically abuse you. One such change shop is on Maria Louisa as you walk towards the Lion's bridge (Лъвов мост) just after Halite (Халите) and Ekzarh Yosif street (you'll recognise it by the misspelling of currency, spelled 'currensy').
Sofia has a large number of mostly free wireless hotspots in bars, restaurants, and cafés. You may find also in hotels and public areas, like "Park Zaimov". The airport has a free public wireless hotspot for use in Terminal 2. So does the entire central train station in Sofia.
Vitosha is a magnificent landmark mountain rising just south of the capital. It is easily accessible by public transportation or by car and day trips in Vitosha in a sunny day are highly recommended. In the winter it is well suited for skiing  and its proximity allows one day ski-trips; in the summer it is great for hiking. A great way to spend few days in Sofia, being on its "balcony," enjoying sunny days on the mountain with a spectacular view on the capital. So going to Sofia provide gives you a unique chance to witness the rare symbiosis of the metropolitan city with its nature park.
Rila Monastery is the most famous monastery in Bulgaria, situated in the huge Rila Massive. It`s just one hour and a half drive away from Sofia.
Plovdiv is a large city in Bulgaria. It`s just one hour drive on a good highway away from Sofia. Plovdiv lies around three hills in the otherwise totally flat Thracian plain. It's historical center, Roman remnants & relaxed feeling make it a great day-trip.
Veliko Turnovo a beautiful city along a winding river, the former capital of Bulgaria in the middle ages. The original city castle and walls are reconstructed. Be sure also to visit nearby Arbanassi.
There are also many monasteries around Sofia.
Istanbul is reachable by bus. Located about 600 km from the city is frequent destination point for many backpackers. There are daily bus lines and the journey takes about 8-10 hours. Tickets can be purchased from the Central Bus Station. Price is about 25 EUR in one direction (May 2013).
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!