Western Shizuoka was once the province of Tōtōmi-no-kuni (遠江国), also known as Enshū (遠州), which you'll still see in many company names and placenames in the area today. The eastern part of the prefecture was once the province of Suruga-no-kuni (駿河国), while the Izu Peninsula was its own province, Izu-no-kuni (伊豆国)
The famous mountains are Mt. Hakone（箱根山）, Mt. Amagi（天城山）, Mt. Fuji（富士山） and Mt. Akaishi（赤石山脈）.
Chubu International Airport outside of Nagoya is the nearest major international airport with flights from a variety of locations in Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. There is a direct shuttle bus from the airport that runs to Hamamatsu and Iwata for around 3000 yen.
Ride a steam engine and cog railway. The Oigawa Railway operates one of less than a handful of steam locomotives left in Japan. Catch the train from Kanaya Station one stop west of Shimada and take it to Senzu deep in Kawanehon-cho. From there you can catch a bus to Okuizumi Station and catch the cog railway (originally built to support the construction of dams on the Oigawa) as far north as Ikawa, at the foot of the Southern Alps. Both train rides are especially beautiful during sakura season (there is a 1km section of track called the "sakura tunnel") and autumn leaf season.