This article is a travel topic
Although trains are not nearly as ubiquitous and convenient a mode of travel in North America as in Europe, they remain popular with some travelers because of the spacious design of the cars, the scenic routes, and the overall comfort of the train ride. Some people prefer to take trains because they do not require long waits at security like at airports, or because they are uncomfortable with flying. Unfortunately, unlike their European counterparts, passenger trains in Canada outside the urban cores can often be off-schedule, sometimes up to several hours late. Train rides in Canada often take much longer than car rides and plane rides, but, when the service is running well, the unique experience can trump the long ride.
All trains will have coach seats. For longer rides many trains have sleeper rooms. The price of these rooms depends on the quality - whether or not there is a sink, or a private shower/toilet. You will pay a considerable supplement for sleeper car service in addition to the regular fare.
Canada's railway system primarily transports freight, and freight has priority over rail-line use. Therefore, passenger trains are sometimes delayed. The country's two major railway companies, Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway, turned over operation of their passenger services in 1978 to VIA Rail Canada. In addition to VIA Rail, a few smaller railways in remote areas of Canada also offer passenger service. As well, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver have commuter rail systems. There are also a large number of companies that offer excursion services primarily geared towards sightseeing and tours.
It must be understood by travellers within Canada that the passenger rail system is, for the most part, a monopoly. Especially for long distance travel, it can cost you more time and money to travel by train versus air. Outside the Quebec City - Windsor corridor, consider trains to be more hotels on tracks rather than a way to get from city to city. These trains offer comfortable seats or sleeping accommodations, unique scenic views, and meals at a premium price compared to other means of getting around, if you have the extra time for the experience. Within the Quebec City - Windsor corridor, VIA Rail is more comparable to air travel; although train travel will still take more time than flying, taking the train in this region can be significantly cheaper than flying, considering baggage fees and taxi fares to and from suburban airports.
The peak periods for most rail companies in North America is somewhere between March/April to September, however, you should check with the rail company. In the off-peak season, prices drop significantly on most carriers.
Canrailpass Valid on any train and route that VIA Rail operates and allows the holder one seat in Economy class (upgrades not permitted). The pass allows passengers seven one way trips (with one stopover per trip allowed) within a 21 day period.
VIA Rail offers discounted fares to youth and seniors:
Youth (12-25) get 30% off economy class, 10% off sleeper class, and 10% off multi-day passes (note: this replaces the student discount, which is no longer available)
Seniors (60+) get 10% off economy class.
Additionally, passengers may be entitled to unadvertised discounts on top of these fares by being a veteran or member of the Canadian Forces, or through membership to some organizations and professional/alumni associations.
Discounted, non-refundable VIA Rail tickets are available in limited quantities with various conditions when purchased in advance, and "Express Deals" provide sales of up to 75% on certain trains when purchased online.
Rocky Mountaineer Vacations This company is privately owned and operates most of its routes in Southwestern Canada. The company's GoldLeaf Service - Vancouver to Banff won the title of “World’s Leading Travel Experience by Train” at the 2005 World Travel Awards.
Canadian National Railway (CN)  While CN turned its passenger services over to VIA Rail in 1978, it acquired the Algoma Central Railway in 2001 and operates passenger services on this line, most notably the Agawa Canyon Tour Train.
Ontario Northland Railway This railway, owned by the province of Ontario, operates in the remote northern part of the province. It operates several passenger services, including the Polar Bear Express tourist train (Cochrane-Moosonee) and the Northlander (Toronto-North Bay-Cochrane).
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)  While CPR turned its passenger services over to VIA Rail in 1978, it inaugurated its luxury Royal Canadian Pacific service in 2000.
Canada Via Rail Tours (CPR)  Train tours and vacations through Canada on Canada's only true rail experience, VIA Rail.
Amtrak has stops in Vancouver, Montréal and Toronto.
Canada Your WayCanadian vacation package experts, with a strong specialty in rail and train holidays
For more tour operators, see VIA Rail tour operator website 
Vacations By RailThe Trusted Authority on Rail Travel in Canada
Agawa Canyon & Wilderness Island Train Tour 2-Day Train Tour featuring Agawa Canyon and an overnight stay for nature and wildlife viewing pontoon boat tours at Errington's Wilderness Island Resort  in the Chapleau Wildlife Preserve
For more tour operators, see VIA Rail tour operator website 
The Canadian, . Runs from Toronto to Vancouver via Winnipeg, Edmonton, and Jasper. VIA Rail's flagship service and now the only remaining service to cross Canada's prairies. The complete journey takes three days. A seat in Comfort (economy or coach) is around $550 before discounts; comfortable sleeper accommodations are also available.
The Hudson Bay, . Connecting with the Canadian in Winnipeg, the Hudson Bay takes travelers from the south to the far north of the province of Manitoba, with three departures a week to Churchill via The Pas and Thompson. A connecting state-subsidised service is available from The Pas to Pukatawagan, principally for the native communities in that region of Manitoba. The train is popular with winter tourists who travel north to see Churchill's population of polar bears and tends to sell out early.
The Skeena, . The Skeena connects with the Canadian in Jasper National Park and operates to Prince Rupert. From Prince Rupert one can take ferries to Alaska or Queen Charlotte islands.
Quebec - Ontario Corridor, . VIA Rail's offers its most comprehensive intercity passenger service between the cities of Quebec City , Montreal, Ottawa, Kingston, Toronto, Sarnia, and Windsor. This route operates more than 30 departures in either direction on weekdays, and is as popular with business travellers as tourists due to fast services that are, in most cases, as fast downtown-to-downtown as commercial airlines.
The Ocean, . Six departures a week make the journey from Montreal to Halifax via Moncton and Truro. The train operates with modern European Renaissance cars, famously purchased by VIA Rail when planned sleeper services through the Channel Tunnel from Great Britain to mainland Europe were cut.
Algoma Central Railway Passenger Train, . Passenger train service in Northern Ontario Canada connecting Sault Ste Marie to Hearst with a mid way station at Hawk Junction near Wawa. Besides connecting these communities this Passenger train provides access to a vast wilderness region both winter and summer for outdoor recreation such as canoeing, kayaking, fishing, hunting, snowmobiling, back-country skiing etc. This passenger train also provides access from Sault Ste Marie, Hawk Junction and Hearst to vacation lodges and resorts such as Errington's Wilderness Island . Year round Passenger service Northbound from Sault Ste Marie to Hawk Junction to Hearst on Thursday, Saturday, Monday and return southbound on Friday, Sunday, Tuesday. Algoma Central Railway also operates the Agawa Canyon Train Tour  daily from mid June through mid October.
VIA Rail offers hikers, kayakers and residents of remote regions the option of special stops at almost any point on several rural routes, as long as passengers purchase their tickets and specify their exact destination 48 hours in advance. This is not available on all routes: most importantly, the Quebec-Ontario corridor is excluded, as are the prairies west of Winnipeg. Please consult the link for more information on stops that are permitted. .
From the beginning of June to the end of October, VIA rail now allows cyclists to bring their bikes as is aboard trains running in the Corridor to Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, London, Windsor (Ontario), Jonquiere, and Senneterre. There is a fee of $20 plus tax for each direction of travel and you must check your bicycle at the baggage counter one hour before departure. After that, you are not guaranteed a space for your bike. Upon arrival at Toronto, Ottawa, London, Windsor, or Montreal, the train crew will bring your bike to you at the baggage claim area in the station. At all other stops, you might have to go to the baggage car to retrieve your bike. Do not leave any equipment (i.e. pannier bags) attached to your bike when you check it in. These must be checked in separately. Check the VIA rail website  for train schedules with bike racks.
During the weekends in summer from last weekend in June to Labour Day weekend as well as Victoria Day weekend (third weekend in May) and Canadian Thanksgiving weekend (second weekend in October), GTA commuter rail operator GO Transit offers a special excursion train from Toronto Union station to Niagara Falls four times a day on Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays (Victoria Day, Canada Day, Civic Holiday, Labour Day, and Thanksgiving Day). These trains feature special bicycle cars which have bike racks on the lower level and seating on the upper level. You can recognize them by the bicycle decals on the sides. There is no additional charge to bring your bike aboard and space is given on a first-come-first-served basis. These trains make intermediate stops at Exhibition, Port Credit (Mississauga), Oakville, Burlington, and St. Catharines.
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