Access to Pietermaritzburg by road is easy, lying as it does on the major N3 freeway from Durban to Johannesburg. The R56 connects Pietermaritzburg with Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and East London to the south-west.
The train station is on the corner of Church and Railway streets, on the south-west edge of the city centre. Exercise caution when traveling on foot in this part of town, due to muggings and bag snatching.
Pietermaritzburg airport services flights from Johannesburg regularly.
Regular daily bus services connect Pietermaritzburg to major cities in South Africa. The bus station is located in Burger Street, opposite the McDonalds and it serves major bus companies. Grey Hound is the most reliable and it operates several round-trips from Durban to Johannesburg daily, where Pietermaritzburg is the last stop before Durban.
Private transport is the best way of getting around. Car rental is strongly advised. Otherise, minibus-taxis are cheap but uncomfortable and occasionally unsafe. Some of the sights of Pietermaritzburg are within walking distance, if you don't mind trudging along for a few kilometres. Private taxis (cabs) can also be hired, but they are substantially more expensive than the minibus-taxis.
The central minibus-taxi rank is in Market Square, which is in the Central Business District near the Natal Society Library and the City Hall.
To get to the Central Business District from any of the suburbs by minibus-taxi, look for a taxi that is travelling to "eTuwen" or simply "Town". (There should be a guy leaning out the window announcing this loudly).
You don't want to go to eThekwini, which is Durban. You want to go to *town*. Ask the conductor if you're unsure.
Minibus-taxis have set routes, so there are a lot of places you can't get to using them.
The CBD isn't as safe as the suburbs. The area around the City Hall is pretty good, but I'd advise against long rambling walks into unfamiliar parts of it.
The City Hall, which is in the CBD, is the largest red brick building in the Southern Hemisphere. It contains a large organ, and occasionally hosts concerts.
The Tatham Art Gallery  across the road houses some fine artwork, including an impressive and ornate clock on the second floor. You'll find a coffee shop on the third floor. Entrance is free.
The Natal Society Library is behind the City Hall, and has recently undergone substantial revamping, with a large new children's wing being built. The fountain and the square that it stands in is scheduled for major renovation.
Down the road you can find the Voortrekker Museum, which celebrates the Great Trek by the Afrikaner people into the interior of South Africa.
Further afield, Queen Elizabeth Park up on the hills above the city contains zebra, buck and the like. No leopards or dangerous creatures, so you can walk around and enjoy the park on foot. Make sure you don't get your food stolen by monkeys, though.
The KwaZulu-Natal National Botanical Gardens in Mayor's Walk are spectacular and worth an extended visit. The gardens focus on indigenous flora and offer diverse walks through forests and open ground. A centrally situated restaurant offers one of the best food settings in Pietermaritzburg.
The nightlife in Pietermaritzburg shows that small towns don't go to bed at 7pm. A few clubs dominate the scene. Tiger Tiger(in the CBD, fairly near to the City Hall) is one of the most popular, playing pop and dance music. Exclusive Lounges nearby plays kwaito and house music. For a more alternative scene, The Red Door in Quarry Road (off Victoria Road) plays alternative rock/punk music on Friday nights and Saturday night - with selective live performances! Other local clubs include, Veritas found in the bustling Golden Horse Casino, Kaskaade, Empire Lounge and Franky Bananaz found near the area of Liberty Midlands Mall, to mention but a few.
Pietermaritzburg does offer quite a couple of pubs and sports clubs. The Stagecoach which is situated near the University has a lovely pub atmosphere. A little further down the road is The Lizard's Rock, which is more of a restaurant, but also has a deck and bar area. This restaurant / pub also has an outside garden area with a junglegym for the younger dinners. Lizard Rock has a fair following of regulars, who are both entertaining and welcoming.
Veritas at the Golden Horse Casino (in Scottsville) has a more upmarket pitch. Serving as a restaurant in the afternoon and early evening, it becomes a nightclub later on. Dress tends to be slightly more formal, with collared shirts, no jeans or takkies, and the like. Also be aware that the minimum age at Vacca Matta varies, so phone in advance.
Every year in May the Comrades Marathon is held (in 2010 on the 30th). The course alternates between the "up" run (Durban to Pietermaritzburg) and the "down" run (Pietermaritzburg to Durban). The distance you have to cover varies slightly from year to year, but is approximately 89 km. Bruce Fordyce, one of the all-time legends of ultra-distance running, won the Comrades Marathon a record nine times.
Liberty Shopping Mall (which is far away from everything else) contains masses of shops, including specialist stores for a host of different goods. In town you can find plenty of shops that sell food, including fast food outlets. Their are also vendors on the pavements, although their goods aren't much to write home about. Downtown in the CBD you can find large clothing stores, as well as smaller Indian shops that sell anything you can think of. Fireworks are particularly popular around Diwali.
Pietermaritzburg Airport can connect you to all cities in South Africa via Johannesburg. Unfortunately, flights from the airport have recently been plagued by delays following a recent upgrade, so beware of scheduling anything mission critical out of here (such as connecting flights). Durban is only about 50 min drive away, and Durban International Airport can get you direct to Cape Town, East London, Bloemfontein, Mozambique, Swaziland and anywhere else you need to go (with a connecting flight through Johannesburg International.)
In the other direction the Drakensberg Mountains lie about two hours drive away, offering an array of outdoor activities, with plenty of resorts and the like dotted around.
Just 20 min out of Pietermaritzburg, the town of Howick offers a small touristic place with the Howick Falls as the highlight.