Palmyra is in Syria.
Palmyra (the Roman name) is known as Tadmor to the Syrians. Both mean the same thing - date palm. The name comes from the lush oasis adjacent to the city which is home to some million date palms. It is the only oasis in Syria and perhaps the only truly tourist town.
Palmyra sits on the standard tourist trek around Syria and should be considered in this light. Intense competition for business amongst local outfits can make the experience somewhat overwhelming to the traveller who has come from the North, and has enjoyed a relatively 'quiet' trip thus far. The major tourist attraction of the area is the stunning ruins - the most famous and well-preserved of which are the Temple of Bel, the colonnade, the funerary towers, the hypogeum of 3 brothers, and the Arab castle. All are within a few kilometers of each other.
There are no ATM's (that accept international cards - there is one for Syrian cards) in Palmyra or even a full-service bank. Hotel Bel (on the main street) will do advances on both VISA and Mastercard for a 20% commission. There is a local exchange office by the museum which will change foreign currency but will not change traveller's cheques. Make sure you have sufficient cash, Syrian Pounds, US Dollars, or Euros, for your time in Palmyra.
Note that, as per usual, the Syrian Commercial Bank offers terrible rates and adds commission. You'll get a better deal by checking the rates online then changing with the shop owners in the Souq.
Souvenir shops abound on the main street with all kinds of jewelery, handicrafts and other wares typical to the Bedouin places, many of which may be nice to buy, depending on what you like. Shopkeepers (in a town with few sources of income other than tourism) are masters in the art of making you part with as much money as possible, so it would be wise to only carry as much money with you as you are willing to spend on souvenirs (and food - see below) to avoid being talked into spending all or most of the money you have for the rest of your trip in Syria. Typically souvenir shopping would happen around dinner, as many of the restaurants and shops are in the same main street and you would happen to walk past them on your way to or from the hotels and restaurants.
On the same street are several stands selling roast chicken (half chicken for take away is 100 SP, hummous 25 SP, salad 25 SP), although you'll be lucky to get those prices.
If you venture on any of the main roads running north you will find felafel stands and other small restaurants selling the typical range of Syrian fast food bakeries selling sweet treats and plenty of convenience stores with drinks and snacks.
The only bars in Palmyra are inside the hotels, such as the Cave Bar in the basement of the Ishtar Hotel. The bar carries good selection of local beers and wines, and you can have your drink in the terrace of the hotel if you wish.
Al Faris Hotel, ☎ +963(955)865-545. By the entrance to the village, on the left. Very nice and clean place with big rooms and a nice owner. Single room is 300 SYP and double room is 600 SYP (August 2009). The owner (who speaks English) can give you a lift anywhere around with his car for cheap. He will welcome you with a watermelon and a tea. edit
The Sun Hotel, ☎ +963(31)591-1133 (firstname.lastname@example.org). Just around the corner on the main street near the ruins end, this quiet backpacker joint has a great dorm on the roof and friendly, relaxed owners. Home cooking for all meals of the day too(not included), very tasty. Double and Triple rooms available with average bathrooms for 1000 SP. April 2010. SY£1,000. edit
New Afqa Hotel. A good budget bet. Just around the corner from the tourist office. Staff are friendly and speak English well. Rooms are clean with en suite bathrooms, heating / air conditioning and satellite TV. A double room with breakfast included was 1200 SP for two people in April 2011. SY£1200. edit
Baal Shamen Hotel. Another backpacker favourite. Accommodation is more basic than at the New Afqa Hotel but the rooms are still clean and staff are friendly. edit
Ishtar Hotel, (The first one on the left side when you enter the main street coming from the ruins), ☎ main +963(31)591-3073 mobile +963(944)318-068 (email@example.com, fax: +963(31)591-3260), . One of the best hotels in Palmyra with very reasonable prices - USD30 for a double room , USD20 for a single room including tax and breakfast. It has a nice cave bar in the basement where you can enjoy the local beers and the tasty red wine. Clean comfortable rooms with private bathrooms and AC in every room. The friendly owner Naim speaks fluent English and French, and will be very happy to help you about anything you need in Palmyra. US$20. edit
Bel Hotel, Jamal Abd Alnaseer St, ☎ +963 31 5912096 (fax: +963 31 5912099), . firstname.lastname@example.org www.hotel-bel.com Friendly family atmosphere; clean rooms with en-suite bathroom, satellite A.C, fridge, air-con and heating. 24-hr hot water, wi-fi, and on-site restaurant available.with all the best edit
Al Nakheel Hotel, ☎ +963(31)591-0744 (email@example.com, fax: +963(31)591-6744), . A clean and very friendly hotel with comfortable beds and private bathrooms and only a few minutes from the ruins. Run by Mohammed and his brother Ahmed, Mohammed will help you in anyway he can and will make sure you have a great time in Palmyra. edit
Orient Hotel, ☎ +963(31)591-0131 (firstname.lastname@example.org, fax: +963(31)591-0700), . Clean, friendly staff, and conveniently located in the center of town. Generous breakfast included. US$50 double occupancy. edit
Heliopolis Hotel, PO Box 75, Palmyra (Main Street near Customs Square), ☎ +963(31)591-3921 (email@example.com, fax: +963(31)591-3923). Unobstructed views of the ruins. Internet service. Traditional breakfast. US$100 double occupancy. edit
On the main tourist drag, the Hani Internet Cafe inside the Traditional Palmyra Restaurant is conveniently located but charges a pricey 50 SP for a half hour. This may be negotiable in low season. Locals can direct you to an internet cafe slightly north of the centre which only charges 20 SP an hour but has irregular hours.
Buses depart frequently for Damascus, Homs, and Deir-az-Zur.The bus station is a little under a kilometre away from the main street, so do not pay anymore than 50 Syrian Pounds for a taxi with your luggage. For other destinations, you may need a private car.
If hiring a private car, you might want to consider side trips to Qasr al-Heir ash-Sharki - a partially excavated Ummayad palace quite literally in the middle of nowhere - and Rasafa, originally a Roman city with heavy Byzantine influence, also used by the Ummayads before being destroyed in the Abbasid era. Rasafa is also of interest for the stone it's built out of, more a quartz-like crystal instead of the usual granite or sandstone. Makes for a unique appearance. This route takes you quite close to the Euphrates, and you can be dropped off in Raqqa, Aleppo, or Hama. Car hire can be price, and the driver still has to get back to Palmyra. Private tours are the real money maker in the Syrian tourism industry, so expect to pay as much as S5000 (US$100), if you're heading for Aleppo or Hama. A bit less to Raqqa.