Leh is located in the Indus river valley at a crossroads of the old trading routes from Kashgar, Tibet, and Kashmir. Its importance as a trading town slowed down with the partition of British India, and ended with the closure of the border in 1962 during the Sino-Indian war. Since opening to tourists in 1974, it has become a bustling tourist town, with large numbers of Kashmiri traders.
It's a small town, easy to get most places by foot. The old town is a compact area of mud brick houses and narrow lanes directly to the east of Main Bazar. Changspa is the agricultural "suburb" northwest of the center, with many guesthouses.
The main Bazaar's elevation is 3505 meters , so take it easy on your first few days there or risk possible altitude sickness. Even experienced high altitude travellers (Andes) might have some trouble.
There are two roads in to Leh, one from Manali in Himachal Pradesh in the south, and one from Srinagar in the west. Both routes are equally spectacular in different ways, and both are time consuming with winding, narrow roads, and numerous military checkpoints.
The main advantage of taking the road from Srinagar, covering a distance of 434 km (270 mi), is that it runs at a lower altitude, and thereby reduces the risk and severity of altitude sickness. It is also open longer - normally from the beginning of June to October - and follows the traditional trade route between Ladakh and Kashmir, which passes through many picturesque villages and farmlands. The disadvantage is that it passes through areas of higher risk of militant troubles. It takes two long days, with an overnight stop in Kargil. Tickets cost Rupees 370/470 on ordinary/deluxe buses.
The route from Manali to Leh, covering a distance of 473 km (294 mi), is one more commonly taken by tourists. It takes two days, normally with an overnight stop either in Keylong (alt. 3096) or in tent accommodation in Sarchu (4253) or Pang (4500). Making the first stop in Keylong drastically reduces the risk of altitude sickness (AMS). It traverses one of the highest road passes in the world and is surrounded by wild rugged mountains. The scenery is fantastic, though it is definitely not for the faint hearted. This historical trade route was linked to Yarkhand and was severed by the India-China war in 1962, and later was transformed in to military supply road. Reliable access is limited from mid-June to end-September, as it is blocked by snow for rest of the year.
Clearing of snow on both these roads starts sometime in early April. Once the whole road is cleared of snow and has been opened for public transport, this is announced at: 
State buses run from Srinagar and also privately operated deluxe buses.From Manali HPTDC,( Himachal Pradesh Tourist Development Corporation), operate Deluxe buses that stop overnight in Keylong ,between July and September. HPTDC start at 09:00 from Manali to Leh, 18:30 from Delhi to Manali. Cost Rs 2400 for good bus for Manali-Leh, Rs 1300 from Delhi to Manali prices here.HRTC , Himachal Road Transport Corporation, the state run buses ply the road during the officially open period, allowing you to stop in a number of places along the way. Total cost Rs. 130 (Manali-Keylong) + Rs 513(Keylong-Leh) . Private buses stop in Keylong , Darcha or Sarchu - the last alternative (eight hundred meters higher than Leh ) involving a high incidence of altitude sickness. There is also a direct bus from Manali to Leh, which takes around 24 hours. This route is not advisable as it dramatically increases the likelihood of altitude sickness. On some buses late booking passengers end up having a wooden bench instead of more comfortable seats, with no seatbelts, and will be repeatedly banging their head for the whole journey. Sleep is next to impossible, and by the end of the journey even the most hardy of passengers in this position will have lost the will to live. Drivers also have a tendency to cut corners; on one particular journey our driver drove down a muddy hill, before we got stuck and were forced to dig ourselves out in the freezing dark for two hours before we could continue. Notwithstanding, the views on this route are spectacular. It is possible to book tickets direct Delhi-Leh , but the best option is to break off the journey in Manali and at the lower end of Lahaul : Sissu , Keylong (main population center) or Jispa - all around 3100 altitude.
Similar options are available while coming back from Leh. However, if you are going to Srinagar, the major part of the journey will take place at night and you may not be able to enjoy the scenery. The journey takes about 15 hours, starting at 5PM in the evening for shared cabs. Different cabs have different times but most would stick to 4 PM to 7PM slot. The approximate price is Rs. 2000 to Rs. 2300 as in August,2014.
Cab journey to Manali takes 18 hours and starts in the wee hours of morning at about 1 AM or so. Again, different cabs have different times close to 1 AM.
The fastest way to get to Leh from Manali is by 'jeep'. Shared jeeps do the trip in one long day (of about 20-24 hours) as opposed to two short ones on the bus. Keep in mind that that all single day rides comes with a risk of being stranded near five thousand meters without being acclimatized , with severe altitude sickness as a result. The journey costs up to Rs 1500 for a seat on a shared jeep. During the high season tickets for the jeep rides must be bought in advance of the day of departure and the main street in old Manali is full of ticket touts, you won't have to find them for yourself.
Leaving Manali before dawn, arrival in Leh is sometime after sunset. Although this is the longest and most uncomfortable car journey you will ever take it's an experience unparalleled in India. Crossing overthe five thousand meter passes affords views of stunning and the bizarre territory. It is advised to take a front seat in the jeep and by NO MEANS allow yourself to be seated in the boot. These seats (in the boot) are inward facing and 24 hours sitting on one of those will take all the pleasure out of the trip.
A privately hired jeep allows the luxury of stopping wherever you like, and allow you to decide on how many people you will travel in your group. If you have a group of five, or can form one with other travellers, this is the most recommended way to get to Leh. While it might be one of the most expensive things you book in the whole of India (around 3000 rupees), the ability to stop whenever you want, take your time and be comfortable for the whole journey is definitely worth it. On the uncomfortable and lengthy bus ride the experience can often be ruined. It is at least worth taking a private jeep on one of your journeys to really get a level of appreciation for the spectacular scenery at your own pace. Try to find a driver who is not in a hurry and wouldn't mind doing frequent stops.
If you are coming from Srinagar, go to #1 taxi stand in town. Book only your seat on sumo taxi jeep to Kargil for Rs. 500. Stay overnight. Book your seat for Leh from Kargil and pay 400 rupees upon arrival in Leh. Get them to drop you at Fort Road which is the heart of the tourist area and accommodation is close by. Make sure you ask for middle seat in the taxi. Too crowded in the front and too uncomfortable in the back. Fantastic scenery for whole two days.
If you are coming from Leh, you can buy tickets either from various agencies around the town, or directly from office located in bus station. It is in the first floor of the nortern (uphill) building, doors facing away from the buses. Price there was Rs. 1500 for front seat in September 2009, and the ride down to Manali took 23 hours starting midnight.
It is also possible to travel between Leh and Manali by truck. These trucks ply the route when it opens in summer and they will be no new sight for anyone who has been in India for even a few days. Making the 490 km (304 mi) journey in the cab of one of these trucks is an experience; they are not as comfortable as the jeeps, nor do they give as good visibility as either jeeps or buses, and take anywhere up to 3 days to complete; but sleeping in the cab and eating the same food as the locals is worth it. You can pre-arrange truck drivers in Manali by going to the main truck stop in the new town. Here the drivers stop on their way from Delhi to Leh and will be more than happy to give you a ride for 500 rupees. Make sure you don't pay before you travel. In Leh there is a similar truck park. Try to pick a truck with the least amount of passengers already otherwise your trip will be even less comfortable. Travelers staying longer in Ladakh are likely to find themselves traveling by truck at some point, and probably don't need to go out of their way to take one.
The road from Manali to Leh is often known as a Biker's Paradise. Bikes (motorcycles) are available for rent at Manali. A popular place is Hardev Motors. Also Into Wild Himalaya, near Manali mall road is a great place for bikes, especially Enfields. If you are looking for Pulsars and Royal enfields, you can check Bike rentals manali. Their office is in Vashisht. Heard good reviews about them.
When biking to Leh it is advisable to travel at a slow pace to allow acclimatization. A suggested itinerary is: Day 1 Manali - Jispa (138 km; 86 mi), Day 2 Jispa - Pang (161 km; 100 mi), and Day 3 Pang -Leh (174 km; 108 mi). Essential supplies include: puncture repair kit, spare clutch cables and some good carriers (to hold luggage). The next bike workshop after Manali is Keylong (110 km; 68 mi) and then at Leh (400 km; 249 mi).
Into Wild Himalaya is a specialist guided motorcycle touring company for Manali - Leh Motorcycle tours. for more details visit [www.intowildhimalaya.com]
Planes fly year round, and are the only option in the winter. Book early and give yourself at least a few days of flexibility as flights are often delayed due to weather conditions. Air India, Jet Airways and GoAir have daily flights from Delhi. Air India Flights are also available from Srinagar, and Jammu.
Those arriving by air are strongly advised to rest for at least one day in order to acclimatize to the high altitude. (See article on altitude sickness)
When leaving, make sure you have a printed copy of your ticket, otherwise you will not be able to enter the airport. Also make sure that you identify your checked luggage (outside on the tarmac) after going through security or it may not be loaded onto the plane due to heightened security measures.
Be aware that luggage weight limits, both checked and carry-on, are significantly more restrictive to/from Leh than elsewhere in India and they are actually enforced. If you are on a long visit to India it may be advisable to leave some of your heavier luggage in Delhi. Besides airport checked luggage facilities you may find that some hotels are willing to hold your luggage for up to a week if you are returning to the same hotel after your trip to Ladakh.
The closest train stations are Pathankot or Chandigarh, both at least three days away by bus. A new station added recently is Udhampur which is linked by rail to Jammu. Please check the Train schedule as trains may not run on daily basis.
Leh is small enough to walk most places, most notable exception being the airport, for which it's advisable to take a taxi for around 100 to 150 Rupees. DO NOT walk the first day as you may be a victim of AMS. To go to tourist destinations around Leh like Pangong Lake, Nubra Valley, etc., private taxis are available at taxi stands. The rates are decided by unions. A bargain of 10-15% is possible on theses rates if you directly contact the taxi driver and not go through travel agencies or through hotel taxi bookings. Alternatively, if you want to travel in a shared taxi, you can contact travel agencies and they fill find travel partners for you. This is payable on per person basis. As everywhere else, solo travelers may have more difficult time booking the tours as despite the abundance of flyers stating 'Daily departures', it is not a certainty. Even the popular tours like Nubra Valley may not be available daily for solo travelers. So, make sure that you book early.
For such a historic site and popular tourist destination, Leh has surprisingly few tourist sights:
Festivals of Leh
There are many NGO's in Ladakh working out of Leh doing important work, many of them taking on travelers who want to stop and volunteer for a few months. However, make sure that you hold appropriate visa as volunteering/working on a tourist visa is prohibited.
Main Bazaar and the surrounding streets have numerous shops selling souvenirs, mostly Tibetan antiques or replicas. The Tibetan market is a good place to buy little jewelery, souvenirs, and various other goodies.
There are half a dozen good book shops with an excellent range of books on the Himalayas, including guidebooks, phrase-books, books on history, and on Buddhism, as well as novels.
People needing to pick up some warm clothing shouldn't miss out on the second hand clothing bazaar near the jeep stand. Quality used clothing from first world countries goes for next to nothing here, especially handy if you are only in the cooler climate for a little while.
Leh also has the best selection of food for trekking albeit not all that different from normal instant noodles, biscuits, powdered milk and chocolate that's available in any village with a shop, but with the addition of fresh and dry fruit and veggies, and a few other luxury foods.
Leh is a good place to pick up Pashmina shawls, a good price for one is about Rs. 4500/- to 7000/-
Hazara Arts on changspa road is one of the best shops in leh where you can get 100% pashmina with good smiling face this shop also have a big collection of carpets.
Main Bazaar has a few sweet shops selling samosas, chana dhal with puri, and other Indian food in addition to the sweets. The shopping areas of the old town and the area around the bus station are good for Tibetan styled restaurants, although few offer more than thukpa (noodle soup) and momos (dumplings). Vegetarian dishes are difficult to find in these places.
You can enjoy some great fresh baked breads with honey and cheese in the main market of Leh.
Main Bazar has a decent selection of mid range Tibetan styled restaurants, popular with tourists and locals. In the summer numerous garden restaurants spring up in Changspa serving Tibetan, Western, and Indian dishes. Also, OpenHand Shop and Cafe around the Old Fort Road has good South African, and Continental Cuisine. The place also has good western coffee, and some good Indian Textiles.
There is little in the way of nightlife in Leh. You can order a beer at many of the restaurants, but they close fairly early. For a more adventurous alternative, ask around the old town (or your guest house owner) for Chang the local home brew beer. It goes for about 15 INR for a liter; bring your own bottle.
The place that closest latest is possibly Biker's Cafe on Changspa road, a few minutes down the road on your right.
There are a few springs scattered around Leh that provide a natural and plastic free alternative to using bottled water.
Clean filtered and boiled water is available from shops, such as the organic food shop, and guest houses.
Leh has a large selection of mid-range accommodation, with some offering decent value. If you're coming from Manali you might find the selection somewhat limited, with attached bathrooms offering hot water somewhat hard to find. There are very few, if any, touts that are so common elsewhere in India, so looking around for accommodation here is much easier and less stressful as a result.
Most of the guest houses are located in Leh's northern suburbs in Changspa, Karzoo and surrounding areas, a 5 to 30 minute walk from the center. In fact it seems as though most of the houses in Changspa have been converted to guest houses. Surrounded by farmers fields and often with excellent views, they make wonderful place to spend a couple weeks unwinding. It's easy to wander around this area stopping at the numerous small guest houses to find something that suits your budget and needs.
Hotel Tsomo-Ri, Fort Road, Leh Ladakh Tel: +91 9419178031 In The Heart of Leh City, All facilities Available
Hotel Tso Kar, Fort Road, Leh Ladakh, Call +91 9419178663,  .. Highly Recommended.
The Pangong Hotel, Near Fort Road, Leh, Ladakh.  Call +91 9419003769, 9858394401, (0) 1982 258665, (0) 1982 253123 email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Nice accomodation with a good view. Great facilities and in the heart of the city. Highly Recommended for Family Travel. (They might ask for some advance amount if you try to make a reservation through phone.)
Royal Heritage Resort, FortRoad,leh,Ladakh-194101(India) Telephone +91-01982-255988, +91-01982-252688,+91-9697857450 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Url- http://www.royalheritageresortleh.com
A highly recommended resort. Has spacious rooms and log huts and a very hospitable staff
Gangba Homestay Ladakh, Upper Tukcha Road, Ladakh, India 194101 +91 9419372808 / +91 9622957430 5 minutes walking from the market. All facilities available and good rooms.
Tsemarang Eco Camp http://tsemarang.nomadslandcamps.com/ or how to be next to Leh in the middle of the nature. From 5 to 7 000 INR per night
Hotel SpicnSpan www.spicnspanladakh.com. This is about Rs 2,500 per night
Hotel Golden Dragon. This is about Rs 5,000 per night
Hotel Whispering Willows. Located at Shey, the old capital of Ladakh, around 10km from Leh.
Leh is still in the early days of the communications revolution, and some Internet cafes use long distance, poor quality phone lines for dial-up. These are not only expensive, but also unreliable. You can find Wifi in many cafes and restaurants, but the connection is quite unreliable: apparently the internet cables are routed through Kashmir, and unrest there often results in internet blackouts across Ladakh (usually lasting for several hours, though occasionally for 1-2 days). Bandwidth is always extremely limited; streaming music, video, and Skype is unreliable at best and impossible at worst. Bandwidth is the highest in the middle of the night when few users are online. The internet connection is fine for emails and messaging however. If the internet is down and you urgently need to make travel reservations, there are many travel agencies with a directory of relevant phone numbers, and they can use their landline to book flights, tours, buses, hotels, etc. for you.
But the scene is changing fast, now you can find many satellite run internet cafes and also mobile/cellphone services (BSNL, Airtel) in Leh. Note that after peak season (starting around October) some internet cafes stop offering satellite internet services due to reduced demand. Usage of Postpaid from Airtel/BSNL from other states will work, so it's good to turn your network to postpaid if you want to stay connected.
Mobile phones from outside Kashmir will not work in Kashmir, so warn your loved ones beforehand that you may be out of touch and start writing postcards. The numerous centers for international calls are fairly reasonably priced. Kashmir specific SIM cards can be readily rented for a nominal charge. You may be required to provide local contact to get the SIM; four passport photos and a bit of paperwork are also required. In order to avoid this hassle, approach Airtel in the main market area and they will take care of local contact requirement.
Computers used are mostly Samsung which have automatic recovery of EC2. There are no easy ways to get crashed computers or laptops repaired in Leh. There is a large Samsung dealer shop in the Leh Main Market.
Leh is one of the safest places in India.
Carry a torch (flashlight) at night, as there is next to no street lighting, and there are some very deep drainage ditches. Beware of stray street dogs as they get aggressive and sometimes territorial after dark, especially in the inner alleys and around eateries.
Ladakh was struck with serious floods and mud slides in August 2010. The airport was operational within days , and the major roads and bridges after a few weeks , and Manali-Leh was re-routed temporaily , until October after Rumtse , making it more than a hundred kilometers longer. The road was fully operational in October 2010.
It is vital have your first acclimatization nights after arriving at altitudes over 3000 meters before venturing to higher altitudes. This means not going for the tent camps at Sarchu (4300) or Pang (4500) directly from Manali , i.e. no longer than Darcha the first night. All overnight stays are not planned , in September 2008 the Air Force had to evacuate travellers with altitude sickness from Sarchu in after massive snowfall, and landslides are not uncommon. Not allowing your body to acclimatize can result in altitude sickness, which has only one cure - turning back! Likewise stay absolute minimum two nights in after a fly in before thinking of going higher. So give yourself two nights to acclimatize and explore the city before you head to higher grounds.Its good to carry oxygen cylinder to acclimatize yourself soon either try out oxygen bar in Changspa
If you are traveling from Delhi to Leh by road, the route which enables better acclimatization is via Shimla, and then towards Kinnaur & Spiti , which gives several acclimatization nights between 2000 to 3000 : Sarahan (2134), Kalpa (2800 ), Tabo (3265). After Kaza (3660) and the Kunzum La (4550) the road connects with the Manali-Leh highway just north of the Rothang pass.
If arriving by flight, rest at least over the first night before starting sightseeing, consider visiting Alchi first since it is lower than Leh .
Diamox is available over the counter in India (as opposed to all Western countries )and can be used with varying success to speed up acclimatization. Those that are allergic to sulfa medication can not use Diamox, and there are side effects to be considered : this needs to be discussed with a doctor beforehand. Information on Diamox, including a chart that offers recommendations on usage, can be found on the U. S. Center for Disease Control web site.
Unfortunately the Leh bus station is far from a highlight, it's chaotic and poorly organised. There are two sections, one for local transportation within Ladakh, and one for the state run buses.
The local buses get exceptionally crowded, times of departure fluctuate greatly, and there is no ticket office (just board the bus, and pay to the conductor). When planing a trip to a destination in Ladakh ask around to find when the departure time roughly is, and show up at the station half an hour early; ask people there what bus to take, don't trust the destinations marked on the buses; take a seat and wait for the bus to depart. Then expect to spend at least an hour at the bus station.
The state buses run to Srinagar, Manali, and even a direct service to Delhi (3 days away), there is a ticket office, and bookings are taken days in advance. The process here is more straight forward and less time consuming.
Taxis have fixed prices (updated every 2 years) and can be arranged from the Taxi Stand along Fort Road. When available, you may also purchase a copy of the fare-booklet for Rs 20.
Explore the Leh district.