Gulbarga is a district in Karnataka State.city, northeastern Karnataka (formerly Mysore). Originally included in the territory of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, the city was annexed to the sultanate of Delhi in the early fourteenth century, first by General Ulugh Khan and then by Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq. After the sultan's death, it fell to the Bahmani kingdom (of which it was the capital between 1347 and c. 1424) and, upon the break-up of that power, to Bijapur. With the conquest of the Deccan by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in the seventeenth century, it was again included in the sultanate of Delhi, but it was separated from Delhi by the establishment of Hyderabad state in the early eighteenth century.
Dotting the city are many ancient monuments. In the eastern quarter are the tombs of the Bahmani kings; the most notable building is a mosque modelled upon that of Córdoba in Spain. Its colleges of arts, commerce, education, engineering, law, medicine, and science, and the women's college are all affiliated with Gulbarga University.
Situated along the main rail line from Mumbai to Chennai, Gulbarga is a centre of the cotton trade, with ginning and pressing factories, and spinning and weaving mills. It also has flour and oil mills and paint factories. The majority of the population in the surrounding area is engaged in agriculture. The chief crops are millet, pulses (legumes), cotton, and linseed. Population (2001) 430,265. It was formerly part of the Hyderabad state (Deccan) before 1956.
Gulbarga is well connected by railway lines and roads. Gulbarga is an important rail head on the Central Southern Railway line connecting to Bangalore, Mumbai, Delhi and India.
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) buses are available from some major cities like Hubli, Bangalore and Hyderabad. There are couple of private buses also which give service through Multi-Axle Vovlo buses.
Travel time from Bangalore to Gulbarga is 11 hours (Overnight journey)
Travel time from Hyderabad to Gulbarga is 5 to 6 hours.
City is well connected by National Highways with Bangalore , which are 610 kilometres (380 mi) away from Gulbarga. Road distances to other cities within the state are: Basavakalyan-80 kilometres (50 mi), Bidar -120 kilometres (75 mi), and Bijapur - 160 kilometres (99 mi).
Sharan basaveshwara temple is a famous Hindu temple which is located at the heart of the Gulbarga city. Sharan was the guru and Basav the shishya, who upheld the relation of guru shishyas. Lakhs of pilgrims visit this temple and a car festival is celebrated around the month of March - April. Every day dasoha (Anna dana) is conducting in this Temple.
Hazrat Khwaja Bande Nawaz (R.A) mausoleum built by the then Bahamani King Ahmed Shah Wali. The 14th century Sufi saint Khwaja Bande Nawaz was a disciple of Hazarath Khwaja Pir Naseeruddin Mahmood, who is also popularly known as Chirag of Delhi. Khwaja Bande Nawaz Gesudiraz played an important role in preaching Islam in the Indian context during the 14th century,
Gulbarga's old moated fort is in a deteriorated state, but it has a number of interesting buildings inside including the Jama Masjid Gulbarga, reputed to have been built by a Moorish architect during the late 14th or early 15th century who imitated the great mosque in Cordoba, Spain. The mosque is unique in India, with a huge dome covering the whole area, four smaller ones at the corners, and 63 smaller still all the way around. The fort itself has 15 towers.
Sri Kshetra Ghangapur is a famous pilgrimage center of God Sri Sadguru Dattatreya, situated very close to Gulbarga. Thousands of pilgrims visit Gulbarga during the annual festival held at the holy shrine of Khwaja Bande Nawaz Darga to commemorate his birth anniversary.
Buddha Vihar of Siddarth trust, inaugrated by president of India, Pratibha Patil and Dalai lama on January 7,is another place of attractions in Gulbarga, attracting all ages of community.It is located about 2 KM from Gulbarga university, It has a big meditation hall
The Uttaradi Matha of the Dwaita School of philosophy of Madhvacharya. The remains of one of its most prominent saints, Sri Jayatirtha, are buried in a Brindavana here. He was a commentator of the celebrated Anuvyakhyana of Madhvacharya, which itself is a commentary upon the Brahma Sutras. For this commentary, called Nyaya Sudha, he is popularly known as Teekacharya.
Malpuri: Malpuri also known as "mamu ki malpuri" is quite famous sweet of Gulbarga. It is best eaten when freshly hot, and the time to buy it fresh is around 4 o'clock afternoon
Jolada Rotti: Jolada Rotti/Jowari Bhakri (Known as Sorghum in western world) is the staple diet of the region. It is prepared from jowar flour. Jolada Rotti or Jwarichi Bhakri is served with a traditional curry and spiced peanut powder. Generally, the food in Gulbarga is believed to be very spicy when compared with the rest of the state.
Hoorana Holige : A variant of Puran Poli of Maharashtra. This is a sweet which is a specialty in the place and prepared on all festivals. It is kind of stuffed pancake. Chickpeas and Jaggery are ground and stuffed into wheat flour and then cooked. This is served with Mango pulp as a side dish.