Great Sand Dunes National Park
Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve  is a unit of the United States national park system located in the state of Colorado. In addition to the eponymous dunes, the park now includes attractive high country in the Sangre de Cristo Range of the Rocky Mountains.
Great Sand Dunes National Monument was one of the many United States national parks and monuments created during the Great Depression (1932). In its original form it covered only the dunes themselves. However, it has expanded significantly since its roots, due in large part to concern among residents of nearby communities about the need to protect the watershed containing the dunes. Recent actions in 2000 and 2004 led first to the creation of a "preserve" adjoining the monument, and then to the designation of the combined monument/preserve as a full-fledged national park.
The park includes North America's tallest dunes, which rise over 750 feet high against the rugged Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The wind-shaped dunes glow beneath the rugged backdrop of the mountains. This geologic wonderland contains over 30 square miles of massive dunes, and also includes alpine lakes and tundra, six peaks over 13,000' in elevation, ancient spruce and pine forests, large stands of aspen and cottonwood, grasslands, and wetlands--all habitat for diverse wildlife and plant species. The town of Alamosa is just under 35 miles southeast of the Visitor's Center, and provides visitors with many lodging, food and other activities options.
Flora and fauna
With ecosystems ranging from dunes, to forests, to alpine lakes and tundra, Great Sand Dunes is an incredibly diverse park for plants and animals.
The mountain and forest area of the preserve is home to several animals common throughout Colorado. Black bears can be found foraging in the shaded creeks and bighorn sheep roam the alpine tundra above the tree line. Mule deer are the most commonly seen animal in the park, but visitors can also occasionally encounter pronghorn (antelope) and elk in the surrounding grasslands.
Smaller mammals found in the park include snowshoe hare, yellow-bellied marmots, beavers, water shrews, badgers and Abert’s squirrels. A diverse bird population includes peregrine falcon, mountain bluebirds and northern pygmy owls. Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout and other trout species can be found in Medano Creek. Tiger salamanders and a variety of lizards and snakes also call the park home.
In the summer, daytime air temperatures rarely reach 90 °F, with average temperatures in the 70s-80s °F. Summer nights are surprisingly cool thanks to the elevation of 8200' above sea level, with lows sometimes dropping into the 40s. Afternoon thundershowers are common in July and August with associated winds and lightning. Be prepared to leave the dunes promptly if thunderstorms threaten: lightning strikes are common and may be fatal.
Fall is generally mild, with Indian summer days. Highs average in the 60s - 70s °F, with chilly nights in the 20s - 30s °F. Be prepared, though, for the occasional cold fall storm, bringing icy rain or even snow.
Cold temperatures are the norm in winter, even though sunshine is generally abundant. The lowest temperature recorded at Great Sand Dunes was -25 deg;F in 1963. Average highs are in the 20s-40s °F, with lows averaging -5 to 15 deg;F. Snow may fall and high winds may occasionally occur, so bring warm, layered clothing and sturdy footwear.
Spring can bring high winds; March, April, and May winds are unstable and can be unusually strong. Temperatures can vary widely: highs may reach into the 60s °F, or only into the 30s °F with an even colder windchill. Lows can also vary from 0 deg;F to the 30s °F. March and April are the snowiest months of the year, but some days in spring can also be swimsuit weather.
The average annual precipitation is 11 inches including an average snowfall of 37 inches. Overall, precipitation increases in all directions as you leave the heart of the San Luis Valley. Yearly there are only 30-40 days when clouds obstruct the sun the majority of the day. The valley is known as the "Land of Cool Sunshine", and lives up to that name throughout most of the year.
Road access to Great Sand Dunes is limited by its position on the west side of the rugged Sangre de Cristos. It is most easily reached via a side road from Colorado SR 17 between Poncha Pass, at the north end of the Sangres, and the town of Alamosa to the south. Another access route is via US 160, which crosses a high pass through the Sangres between Alamosa and Walsenburg on Interstate 25, and then onto SR 150, reaching the same access road as the SR 17 route.
Great Sand Dunes is a long way from a major airport (Denver is about 150 miles away as the crow flies, considerably further as the car drives), but nearby Alamosa's airport  has regular commuter service to Denver on Great Lakes Airlines.
Entrance fees are $3.00 for each adult, with no charge for children 15 or younger. The National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass, available for $80, allows free access to all national park areas for one year. The Great Sand Dunes Annual Permit also allows free access to the park for one year and costs $15.00.
If you are going to be in the Crestone/BACA and Moffat area Windhorse Transportation is a great service that will give you great tours and is also a taxi service.
Good views of the dunes are available at the visitor center, just inside the entrance station. There are interpretive displays.
Hike. The dunes themselves are a very short distance from the visitor center, and you can reach them by simply following the obvious path. Once you're in the dunes, there are no marked trails; you simply wander among them until you've had your fill. (Either keep the visitor center in sight, or bring a compass.) You'll get sand in your shoes; dress accordingly and have a change of clothes, or at least shoes, waiting at the car. Trails into the high country are reachable from farther up the road, beyond the dunes.
A guidebook with details on numerous hikes in the area, as well as other activities, food, and lodging, is The Essential Guide to Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, ISBN 097244131X.
You can also get an Official Visitors Guide from Alamosa full of additional activities and more information about the area all around the Great Sand Dunes, to help you set up a family base camp to be able to see more of the National Park and Preserve.
During spring and early summer, runoff from the Sangre de Cristo Mountains coalesces in a little creek that runs along the south side of the dunes, past the visitor center. Where Mosca Creek passes through the dunes, a remarkable beach-like atmosphere results that draws families doing precisely the things you'd expect at any other beach -- with the obvious exception of swimming, since the creek is only about six inches deep. You'll see picnics, small children wading in the creek (which is warmed by the sun), Frisbee tossing, maybe even a little beach volleyball. Come prepared to participate, and bring a change of clothing, particularly shoes; there is a changing room and rinse station near the visitor center to get the sand out of your clothes (and you) before you get back in the car. Flow in the creek is seasonal, and by the end of the summer there may not be enough water left for some of these activities.
AJ's Truck Stop is a truckerschoice.com truckstop. AJ's is family friendly and was formerly called My Sisters Place, for the two sisters who owned it before. It was bought out at the end of 2005 and renamed AJ's. AJ's has Brazen Cafe located within the stop, with various other accommodations. Its located just mile north of The Mosca entrance/exit on highway 17 in Hooper before the State HWY 12, north of the sand dunes. All Major credit cards are accepted. You'll find the convenience of showers for men & women, for your personal hygiene.
Brazen Cafe Located in Hooper, Colo on HWY 17. Ask for the truckers plate... it's the local's favorite!
Billy's Bar. Great Pizza, Great Beer
No lodging is available in the park. Alamosa, about 30 miles to the southwest, has a reasonable assortment of hotels, motels and motor inns. Some of the tiny towns on HWY 17 (Mosca and Moffat) have motels that seem to come and go:
The park includes a fairly large (88 sites), well-developed, and well-liked campground near the dunes; fee $14/site/night. "Loop 1" is held open as "First come first served", but the rest is reserved at the park's camping reservations website. Some online reviewers state this is one of the best camping spots they've been to.
There are also more camping and RV options available in the general Alamosa area.
The high country is good for backpacking (free permit, available at the visitor center, required). In addition, the rugged 4-wheel-drive road to Medano Pass at the eastern edge of the park offers opportunities for "backcountry car camping," if the term isn't an oxymoron. No permit is required for camping along this road.
Backcountry camping in the dune field itself is also possible, with a free permit, and is a truly mind-blowing experience. Sitting atop a dune, watching the sunset along the Rocky Mountains over the high dunes is simply magnificent. The climb in with a pack is rough on the steep sands, so be prepared for a real workout. The best time of the year to camp in the dunes is undoubtedly late Spring, since sand temperatures are too hot in the Summer, and even in the Fall. During the winter, the high altitude will make the sand extremely cold, and you definitely don't want to camp in both sand and snow. Temperatures in the dune field swing wildly throughout the day, as sand reacts to temperature changes very rapidly. Wear sandals for the day, and prepare for cold nights. And don't forget to prepare for the bizarre environment. That means proper sand gear for your tent (otherwise you will blow away in the rough night winds), and learn how to tie a turban—they're extremely useful for keeping your head cool in the day, warm at night, your face protected from airborne sand, and keeping your head cushioned in any crazy dune descents.
The Great Sand Dunes is generally safe. The Park Rangers are usually in the main parking lot, looking out for your safety. If you are in real need call the sheriff (719)655-2544. The dunes are extremely large and easy to get lost in. If you are going to venture deep, bring navigation equipment.