Giza (الجيزة al-Gīza) is a Governorate to the west of the Egyptian capital Cairo - a city in its own right, but for a long time now absorbed as part of the heavily-populated and sprawling Cairo metropolis. Giza is best known as that part of Cairo closest to the world-famous Pyramids of Giza, situated high on the desert plateau immediately to the west of the urban district, itself located in the valley and centred around the Pyramids Road, linking central Cairo with the ancient wonders. One of the premier attractions of Egypt, if not the world, the Pyramids of Giza represent the archetypal pyramid structures of ancient Egyptian civilisation and - together with the Sphinx at the base of the Giza plateau - are the iconic image of Egypt.
The city / district of Giza is important as a secondary - and increasingly popular - option for travellers for food, accommodation and entertainment beyond central Cairo. Most of these services are concentrated along the local transport artery, the Pyramids Road.
The desert plateau of Giza, adjacent to the Pyramids, will eventually form the site of the Grand Museum of Egypt  (the competition-winning design conceived by an Irish architectural team led by Shih-Fu Peng), the long-awaited primary replacement for the long-standing Egyptian Museum in Midan Tahrir. Completion has been projected for 2013.
Not much more than a century ago, the Pyramids Road existed as little more than a dusty carriage track amongst irrigated fields, leading out from the city to the then small peasant village of Giza adjoining the pyramid field. Given the rapidly increasing population of Cairo in the 20th century, and the obvious tourist opportunities that the Pyramids provided, Giza has now been transformed beyond recognition to those pioneering Western travellers of the late 19th century. Major arterial roads, apartment blocks, retail strips, restaurants and night clubs now replace what used to be palm-fringed farmers' fields, and the city has now spread to the very limit of the desert plateau. Such rapid development, of course, has not been without its costs - social, economic and aesthetic - and the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities is now making some efforts to control and channel future (re)development in areas closest to the Pyramids themselves.
The three main Pyramids of Giza are the focal point of the Giza necropolis, or cemetery, that served the elite of the Old Kingdom capital of Egypt at nearby Memphis during the mid to late 4th Dynasty (late 3rd millennium BCE). Three pharaohs were buried here in turn - Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure - their astounding burials attracted a number of surrounding associated burials of their queens, family members and nobility.
Metro Line 2 now runs from Cairo to Giza, although it doesn't go all the way to the Pyramids. Get off at "Giza" station (not the terminus!). When you go out from the ticket machine you'll see the ticket window, take the left door then go down the stairs. You will find the pyramids road tunnel in front of you. A shared taxi can be hired, the old VolksWagen cars. A taxi to the pyramids wouldn't be so expensive, and if you take the white taxis they should have a meter. If the driver doesn't run the meter just open the door and pretend like you are getting off and he should run it (he should turn it on before the car moves). The cost is about 15LE for Egyptions, though they will ask you for 50LE at least, so if you give the driver 20LE=3$ will be good for the driver. If you're in a group of 3 or 4 persons give him 5$ and he will be full of happiness. The Pyramids are 8 km, 15-20 min trip due southwest on the long Al-Haram Avenue that the train crosses over just before stopping at the station. That's effectively a 'right turn' from the line you've just been taking. Any number of minibuses and buses go to the site (known as 'al-haram' in Arabic'); they include the green public 900 and 997 buses, but I wouldn't recommend taking public transportation because you can get ripped off and recently Egypt hasn't been the safest place.
The Pyramids may be nearer than you think, so it's possible to take a taxi to the Pyramids from any part of Cairo at a reasonable cost, and it's certainly the fastest and easiest method. There are essentially two options for this, unmetered & metered:
Older black & white taxis "rarely to find now" - meters are not used, so don't forget to haggle. Taxi drivers will nearly always want to take you to see their "brother's" perfume shop, or their "father's" carpet warehouse on the way - if you don't want to waste time doing this, and being put on the spot to make a purchase - just make it very clear that you only want to see the antiquities.
Solid-yellow"rarely to find" and solid-white taxis "most common" - These are metered and air conditioned sometimes. You might save yourself the hassle with the black and white taxis mentioned above, and at almost the same cost, if not less depending on your skill. On the other hand there are stories of drivers of white and yellow cabs fixing the meters, which would hardly be surprising given that it happens all over the world.
From central Cairo, the optimum way to get to the Giza Pyramids using public mass transit options is by bus routes 355 or 357 - a large white, air-conditioned coach with CTA (Cairo Transport Authority) on the side. Travelling every 20 minutes from the airport and Heliopolis, the bus stops (or doesn't - you may have to flag it down!) at the Abdel Menem Riyad Station in Midan Tahrir, next to the Egyptian Museum, before continuing out to Giza and the Pyramids. Tickets costs LE 2 - a bargain!
Even cheaper and more interesting is taking the ordinary buses 900 or 997, costing 1LE, from the big central bus station under the overpasses "please consider that there's no timetable for it maybe you waiting 1 minute or 1 hour", close to the museum. There are three lanes, and they leave from one closest to the rundown controllers' booth (as of late July 2010). Be careful when about getting down "near to the pyramids", you may encounter scammers who take you to their camels instead of to the pyramids don't talk or look to anyone just go directly to the pyramids hill in front of you. For 997, the correct spot is along a long avenue, after you're spotted the Pyramids and the bus has done a U-turn and then turned left — get off when you a see a blue sign for the Light and Sound show. "Not recommended and there's risk"
There is a restroom located to the right of the ticket booth just before you enter the pyramids. The attendant will demand LE 1 from all foreigners. Another restroom is located near the gift shop in the Solar Barque Museum, though there is no sign and you will have to ask the shopkeeper to open the bathroom door for you. A "W.C." sign located outside of the Sphinx exit will direct you to the right, where a restroom attendant charges foreigners the exorbitant price of LE 3. You can avoid this if you simply go straight and exit the pyramids and use the free bathroom located opposite of the exit on the third floor of the Pizza Hut/KFC restaurant.
See Cairo/Giza with children article for suggestions on visiting Giza with children.
All the worthwhile attractions within the Giza area are concentrated on the Giza Plateau at the end of Pyramids Road. Some people are shocked to travel down a street in Giza and see the tip of a Pyramid rise up over the golden arches of a McDonalds with a sign in Arabic - your idea of pyramids rising up out of an empty desert might not match the reality.
There are two ticket offices: the first is near the main entrace, the second - near Sphinx, in the eastern part of the Plateau. If you use the second one in the morning you will avoid crowds of tourists and will have a possibility to explore the Sphinx area all alone in silence. Entry to the site is LE 80, and to enter the pyramids themselves costs another LE 40 for the Pyramid of Menkaure and LE 120 for the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Student IDs will come in handy, giving you a 50% discount. The interior of the pyramids is hot, humid and somewhat claustrophobic, with the passages steep, dusty and hard to move through, and those with any heart or lung issues or a physical handicap will want to steer clear. There are only 2 pyramids open to the public at any given time, while the third pyramid is being restored and they rotate every 2 years. For those willing to brave these conditions, however, it may be an interesting and educational experience. Personally witnessing the interior walls and passage ways of the pyramids gives one an even deeper appreciation of the tremendous achievement accomplished by the builders of these ancient structures. No cameras are allowed into the pyramids. For those on a tight budget, visiting the Pyramid of Menkaure is a very similar experience to visiting the larger pyramid and cheaper.
Not all the Pyramids are equally accessible for interior exploration, the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities closing them to the public at least one at a time for conservation and renovation measures.
Climbing the Pyramids, although once a popular tourist activity, is both now officially forbidden and extremely dangerous - several tourists have met an untimely death attempting to. Some Pyramid guards have been known to turn a blind eye in return for baksheesh in less frequented areas, but this practice has a very negative impact on the pyramids and is strongly discouraged.
It's wise to arrive at the Pyramids at the moment they open, as tour bus activity and (in the summer) the heat quickly make the attractions overrun and difficult to fully enjoy. Since tourism has taken a major hit after the 2011 revolution, many who used to make a living off of this industry are extremely desperate in this day/age. It is a great time to visit as prices are lower and crowds less than in the past, but be prepared for extreme measures such as kids jumping on your car to get you to stop and hire them as a tour guide. It's sad to say, but best option is probably to come as a large group in bus since you'll be better shielded from the hassle.
Do not give up your ticket to anyone outside of the gate checkpoints. You will need to show it to enter through the metal detectors at the entrance to the Pyramids area, Sphinx area, and to enter the Pyramid if you choose to pay for that ticket. There are many folks who will walk up and claim (true or false?) to work for the government and ask to see the ticket/grab it, then take it and try to start a tour for you. Don't think that just because they are doing this in front of the police they are legit. They want to explain things at a fast pace, and then demand a tip. Do not give up your ticket and do not be afraid to stand up for yourself and refuse tip. If you want a tour, better ones can be booked in advance and will offer more accurate details of what you are seeing. (A favorite place for them to lurk is beside the tombs outside the Great Pyramid.)
Before you get on the back of a camel or horse have a look around how they treat their animals. You might change your mind. If you anyway decide to take the offer of one of the horsemen or camel guys, make sure you discuss the price and where you go first. Ask to confirm it covers two people/two horses. Negotiate the price you want. At the end of the trip, when you get back to where you had agreed, get off the horse/camel, hand the man the agreed money and walk away. They will try to come up with all sorts of scams to get more money out of you. If you are happy and wish to give a tip, do it because you choose. Don't feel pressured into giving extra. Just walk away. They won't follow you. It's recommended to arrange camel/horse through your tour guide or with a trusted stable outside the entrance.
great horses - no beating or slapping at FB stables and besides an amazing trip the shisha and Karim's amazing support it was a place to safely say yes without gettin ripped off afterwards!!!!! FB's Abu Sir second stables are very relaxing too!
A number of Western fast food options exist immediately opposite the main ticket gates to the Pyramid enclosure, Pizza Hut and KFC included, so you can munch on a Tower burger and sip on a coke in air-conditioned comfort whilst gazing on the 4,000+ year-old Sphinx across the road! Many may prefer a more authentic experience, that said - the novelty of the situation could be interesting.
You must appreciate that Egypt is a muslim country, and therefore alcohol is not permitted, alcohol will still be served, yet generally only in hotels.
General accommodation options are somewhat limited within the Giza district - most travellers tend to stay in and around central Cairo itself and travel out to the Pyramids for at least part of the day. For people determined to stay in close vicinity and / or for whom cost is no issue, there are a number of very comfortable options:
The Giza Pyramids, being the main tourist attraction in Egypt, attract millions of tourists each year. They likewise attract a large number of the most determined opportunists for miles around. Report any instances of harassment by camel drivers and tourist touts to the black-uniformed (or white-uniformed in the summer) Tourist Police immediately, and be prepared for all manner of potential scams, possibly including "advice" from official-looking individuals that an attraction is closed or has an alternate entrance. Also be aware that any "favour" of any kind (offering directions, being shown something, etc) might be done in expectation of a tip, so be cautious when accepting unsolicited help (although don't let your holiday be spoiled by overzealous caution, you also might encounter genuine help). Also note that some Tourist Police might routinely offer to help you in the expectation of a tip. Many known scammers will operate right in front of the tourist police, who are either in on it or don't bother to intervene.
Tips to avoid harassment:
Additional useful safety tips: