Geok-tepe fortress is the site of the Turkmen's last battle against the Russians in 1881. 10.000 Turkmen troops and 40.000 civilians were inside the fortrtess, when the Russian general Skobelev attacked Geok-tepe with 7.000 infantry and cavalry and 90 gun and rocket batteries. More than 15.000 Turkmen were killed in the battle and another 8.000 on the escape in the desert. It is reported that General Skobelev commented the battle with the words: "The harder you hit them, the longer they remain quiet". General Skobelev, who is called "the White General" in Russia, because he used to wear a white uniform and to ride on a white horse is called "Old Bloody Eyes" by the Turkmen. The battle of geok-depe is commemeraoted today as a public holiday on Jan 12th ("Remembrance Day").
The Saparmurat Hajji Mosque, a modern building with blue domes, was erected after Turkmenbashi's pilgrimage to Mecca in the 1990's.