Eritrea was conquered in 1890 by Italy, who hung onto it until World War II, when they were expelled by the British. Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province ten years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence, which ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating Ethiopian and Ethiopian-backed forces. Independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum, administered by the UN.
Hopes were high when the new state was born but a new border war with Ethiopia erupted again in 1998 and ended only under UN auspices in December 2000. Eritrea briefly hosted a UN peacekeeping operation that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone on the border with Ethiopia. An international commission, organized to resolve the border dispute, posted its findings in 2002. However, final demarcation is on hold due to Ethiopian objections, and the border remains very tense to this day. Eritrea has since expelled the peacekeepers due to lack of support from the UN in having the border ruling enforced.
Hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 610mm (24 in) of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in the coastal desert.
Bordering Ethiopia, there are north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to rolling plains. Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon declaring independence from Ethiopia in 1993.
Eritrea is a relatively small country (by African standards), about the same size as Pennsylvania or England, but it has a varied and contrasting landscape due to the diverse topography of the Great Rift Valley, which traverses all of East Africa, the Red Sea and the Middle East.
The country's most interesting destinations are its natural attractions. There are six main topographical features in the country. The highlands in the center and south of Eritrea, the western lowlands, the Sahel in the north, the subtropical eastern escarpments, the northern coast and archipelago and the southern coast.
The highlands, where the capital Asmara is situated, lie between 1500 and 3500 meters above sea level and are blessed with a temperate, Mediterranean and dry climate, with little seasonal variation in temperature. There, the rainy season comes between May and September and the dry season lasts from December to April. There is however considerable variation in temperature between different altitudes in the highlands. The landscape essentially consists of valleys, hills and vast expanses of plateaus interrupted by dramatic chasms and gorges. The dry season from December to April is distinguished by the red-brown, rusty, beige or black (stone and rubble-colored) landscape, resembling photos from Mars. The vegetation consists largely of shrubbery, eucalyptus, aloes, cacti and the odd explosively colorful specs of bougainvillea, jacaranda or other ornamental plants in the villages and towns. The rainy season brings torrents of rain and nourishment to the land, which transforms into a verdant, emerald and grassy landscape in the post-rain months from August to October.
Rural highlanders live a lifestyle, which resembles Biblical times: villages with stone houses, small plots, ancient temples (both Christian and Muslim), people farming and herding with traditional means using little technology, and transporting their goods (as well as themselves) with mules and camels. A good place to explore the highland landscape is in the outskirts of Asmara, the capital. Near the village of Tselot is the Martyrs National Park, inaugurated in 2000. It is a mountainous forest and wildlife preserve at the ridge of the highland plateau where the capital was built.
The western lowlands lie between 1500 and 100 meters above sea level, the climate is tropical with high humidity and heat throughout the day during the rainy season (which comes at the same time as in the Highlands i.e. from May to September) and dry hot days with cold nights during the dry season. The landscape consists largely of plains, which are grassy, muddy and green during the rainy season and dry, dusty and sparsely covered with shrubbery during the dry season.
The plains are interrupted by the odd hills and mounts as well as three seasonal rivers originating in the Eritrean highlands and one perennial river, which forms part of the Ethiopian border and originates in the Ethiopian highlands (the Setit, also known as Tekeze in Ethiopia and Atbara in Sudan). All major towns in the lowlands are situated on or near these rivers. The southern half of the lowlands consists of typical African Savannah and hosts the odd flocks of wild African elephants and other typically Savannah-type flora and fauna. The northern half of the lowlands is considered part of the Sahara desert and consists of vast expanses of sand dunes and rocks with a few sparsely populated oases. The best place to explore both aspects of the lowlands is the market town Tessenei by the Sudanese border and its surroundings, as it lies right between the dry and green parts of the lowlands. Tessenei is also a place of trade for the nomadic peoples of the desert as well as the sedentary farming communities of the Savannah. Tessenei affords some of the most basic amenities for visitors such as hotels with showers and flush toilets, shops (including photo shops to buy film and bottled drinks) and restaurants serving well-cooked meals. It is accessible by asphalt road from the capital Asmara via Keren and the towns of Agordat and Barentu, which takes about 10 hours. Buses run daily from Asmara. It can also be reached by dirt track from the Sudanese city of Kassala only 40 km (25 mi) away. Considering the border bureaucracy, this short distance could however prove to be a whole day's endeavor.
The Sahel in northern Eritrea lies at the eastern fringes of the great Sahara desert and is distinguished by its sharp contrast with the sandy deserts of the western lowlands and those of the eastern coast. The Sahel consists of a towering narrow chain of mountains ranging from 1000 to 2500 meters (3280-8200 ft) high and continue all the way North to Sudan and Egypt (a feature of the Great Rift Valley). The slopes to the east and west are sparsely populated by herding nomads. The rainy season in the western slopes comes at the same time as in the Highlands and western lowlands, whereas the eastern slopes resembles the Red Sea's climate of erratic precipitation between December and March. The rainfall in this region is much less than in most other inhabited parts of the country. The climate is desert-like with little humidity, dry hot days and cold nights with little seasonal variation in temperatures. Variations in temperature are seen however, between different altitudes. Heavy erosion due to war and previous overgrazing has also seriously impeded the benefits of the rainy seasons. The landscape is therefore very arid and fit for only the most tenacious of nomadic herding communities. The central and northern core consists of impenetrable and hair-raising mountain passes, gorges and valleys. This was the main base for the Eritrean rebels (who now make up the country's government) when they fought against Ethiopia for Eritrea's independence. One seasonal river, Anseba, originating in the highlands, bisects the mountain range and drains in a delta on the Red Sea coast of Sudan just north of the Eritrean border. The best place to explore the Sahel is the town of Nakfa, which was the main base of the Eritrean resistance and gave the national currency its name. Nakfa also has a war-museum commemorating the liberation struggle and a comfortable, yet modest government-run hotel with a restaurant and satellite TV. It is accessible from Asmara via Keren on asphalt road and from Keren via the town of Afabet on a dirt road. This takes 10 to 12 hours as the road between Keren and Nakfa is awful. Buses run to Nakfa from Keren starting early in the morning so a trip from Asmara would entail an overnight stay in Keren (which is served many times daily from Asmara). Afabet is also accessible by asphalt road from the port of Massawa via the town of She'eb. The Massawa-Nakfa trip would still take about 10 hours as the unavoidable Afabet-Nakfa leg of the journey is the most taxing. Buses run once weekly from Massawa to Nakfa.
The subtropical eastern escarpment, consists of the eastern seaward slopes of the highland region. Unique for this thin sliver of landscape is that it hosts the country's only subtropical rainforest and one of the world's largest selection of bird species, both seasonal winter-migrants and endemic tropical. Being so mountainous, it has never been heavily settled (luckily) as it is very hard to farm. Nevertheless, there are some small coffee and spice plantations in its central, higher altitude areas as well as tropical fruit plantations in the lower areas. The Solomouna National Park is the best place to explore this area and is accessible by asphalt road from the capital Asmara as well as the port of Massawa. The only way to the national park is by guided tour with one of Eritrea's tour agencies, which all operate out of Asmara. Traveling to coastal Massawa from highland Asmara, one passes through this region. The character of this region is represented by the towns and villages between Nefasit (25 km from Asmara) and Dongollo Alto (50 km from Asmara).
The northern coast and archipelago consists largely of a sandy red-brown and beige semi-desert with some shrubbery and volcanic basalt-rock along the mainland coast. The elevation is between 0 and 500 meters (1640 ft) above sea level and the climate is always tropical and humid, reaching uncomfortable highs of 37 to 50 degrees C (99-122 F) in the summer months from May to September before cooling to breezy and warm lows of 25 to 35 degrees (77-95 F) between October and March. The rainy season is an insignificant concept on the coast as it seldom rains at all, save for the freak storm that occurs on the odd year. Some minimal precipitation and cloudiness may occur in the months of November to March, but the coast relies mainly on the runoff from aquifers and table water,from the highlands and eastern escarpments for its water supply. One of the few attractions inland is the hot springs resort about 35 km (22 mi) from the port city of Massawa, where hot mineral water baths are available and the water is also bottled as one of the country's most popular mineral water sources and brands (Dongollo, sold in brown glass bottles).
The coast and archipelago host some of the Red Sea's most pristine coral reefs, rife with marine wildlife ranging from dugongs and mantas to big schools of tigerfish, dolphins and of course sharks. Eritrea's coast offers some of the best diving in the world but some of the most limited diving and tourist facilities, all of which are based in the port city of Massawa and are extremely expensive. The beaches in and immediately surrounding the port city of Massawa as well as to the north are of modest to poor quality due to pollution as well as flooding and erosion from the nearby highlands. Parts of the northern coast also consists of large mangrove swamps, great for fishing and bird watching but not for beach life.
The beaches on the Dahlak islands, on the other hand, are clean, white and pristine, with lagoons of clear turquoise water. The only way to get to the Dahlak islands is to charter a boat from a licensed company in Massawa. The biggest island Dahlak Kebir, which features one modest resort-hotel is only 90 km (56 mi) away as are some other smaller uninhabited islands like Dissei, which can make for affordable day-trips from Massawa. Beyond Dissei, the archipelago extends much farther and offers much greater attractions. With Eritrea's limited facilities, the possibility of going on longer cruises and exploring more of the attractions is prohibitively expensive and only available through a few European-run companies based in Massawa. With the country's heightened sense of security, travelling independently on one's own boat or a chartered one is impossible. The best place to explore the northern coast and archipelago is obviously the port city of Massawa.
The southern coast is perhaps Eritrea's most dramatic yet most inhospitable landscape because of its volcanoes, quicksand, bubbling sulphuric mud pools, salt lakes, coastal cliffs and inland depressions. The elevation ranges between peaks of over 2000 meters (6,560 ft) above sea level and depressions of more than 100 meters (330 ft) below sea level with fields of salt pans and strangely shaped rocks where temperatures reach the highest on our planet. The southern coast has the highest recorded temperatures in Eritrea which regularly reaches 55°C (131 F). Humidity keeps the temperatures high all throughout the day and seasonal variations are the same as on the northern coast. The northern inland areas of the southern coast offer a dramatic landscape of contrast between the backdrop of the towering mountains of the highlands to the west and the vast expanses of coastal desert to the east. It is the only area of considerable vegetation in the whole region, thanks to the highland rainfall and runoff. The area also hosts an interesting array of wildlife such as mountain goats and ostriches. The region is situated between the port cities of Massawa and Assab, which are about 500 km (310 mi) apart. The region is ideally visited on a journey between the two cities, but a journey could also consist of excursions from Massawa and/or Assab individually, especially for trips geared towards viewing inland landscapes. Any journey without guides to this region is off-limits due to the extreme climate as well as political volatility near the Ethiopian border. The only public transportation in the area consist of buses between Massawa and Assab, which run a few times weekly. Assab is also served by Nasair from Asmara twice weekly.
All nationalities must apply for a visa in advance before entering the country.
Some Eritrean Embassies have websites where a visa application can be downloaded and printed out, saving you some time. When you apply for a visa to Eritrea, you must do it at an Eritrean Embassy in - or accredited to - the country where you are a citizen and nowhere else. If there is no Eritrean Embassy or mission in your country, contact your foreign office/ministry to verify the nearest accredited Eritrean mission. Below is a list of Eritrean Embassies around the world.
These are the Eritrean Embassies in
If you come from a European (EU or EES) country without an Eritrean mission, you contact the Eritrean Embassy in Brussels by default.
When traveling overland, as of December 2008 it was NOT possible to obtain visas in Sudan (neither in Khartoum nor Kassala) unless you're a Sudanese national. The border with Djibouti has been indefinitely closed as of December 2008 and with Ethiopia as of May 1998.
For a tourist visa, you need to submit specific information about when and at what border post you will arrive and depart, so it is wise to have already made some plans (such as buying a ticket).
Eritrea has two international airports: Asmara International Airport in the capital Asmara and Massawa International Airport in the coastal city of Massawa.There is a US$20/€15 airport fee payable upon departure.
Egypt Air serves Asmara twice to 3 times weekly from Cairo.
You can enter Eritrea driving from Sudan (Kassala border crossing) provided you have a valid certificate of ownership of the vehicle you're driving (no rentals) and all your (including your passengers') passports and visas in order as well as a customs declaration (if necessary). Visas should be arranged in your country of origin, before arriving in Sudan (unless you are a Sudanese national). The roads on the borders are very poor so you should be driving a 4WD. The first gas-station entering Eritrea from the Sudanese border is in Tessenei, a distance of about 40 Km. Diesel is more easily available than petrol.
There are Sudanese pickup taxis running from Kassala in Sudan to the Eritrean border (a half hour away) daily, and Eritrean taxis from the Eritrean border to Tessenei (Tessenei is located 45 kilometer from the Sudanese border), about an hour away.
The bureaucracy of the border crossings can take hours so start in the morning or early afternoon from Kassala in Sudan as it is not possible to enter Eritrea after dusk (border posts are closed).
Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa). Sadaka Shipping Lines and Eritrean Shipping Lines serve the route Massawa - Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They serve mainly Muslim pilgrims, and it is quite difficult for non-pilgrims to enter or transit the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. If you are sailing or cruising in on a private boat, you can apply for a special permit upon arrival in the ports of Massawa and Assab, to re-fuel, buy supplies and make reparations. Consult your country's foreign ministry and the Eritrean mission in/accredited to your country of origin in advance for details.
Asmara has 10 downtown bus-lines on distinctive Red Mercedes Benz buses, with a sign in the front saying where they're headed (oftentimes in Latin script). The bus stops are easily identifiable (there are signs and an obvious shelter with a bench), but the buses stop running quite early in the evening (about 7PM). They run on 15-30 minute intervals during the day (every day), but there is no fixed or published schedule. The roads get pretty jammed at rush hours (in the morning, midday and around 4PM in the evening). The fare is 1 Nakfa, and the entrance is in the back where one buys the ticket. It is not necessary to have exact change, but one should try to pay in lower denominations.
Line number 1 goes between the airport, 3 km south of the city, and the zoo in Biet Ghiorghis, 2 km (1 mi) east of the city on the eastern escarpment (the windy road to the Red Sea begins after Biet Ghirogis). Number 1 also passes through the main streets in downtown Asmara (Independence and Martyrs Avenues). All bus lines that begin with 2 (e.g. 21, 22, etc.), run between the marketplace downtown and the surrounding villages, but there are only a few a day. Therefore, plan to leave early in order to be able to return the same day. Only the locals know the schedule (through word of mouth). If you're lucky one of them speaks English and will be very helpful. Some villages like Embaderho and Tselot are well worth visiting for their scenery and traditional lifestyle.
There also white minibus-lines running on the main streets of the city, which run on fixed routes but without fixed stops or signs. They usually stop at the bus stops, but you still have to hail them when you see them, just like a cab. Before boarding, ask them where they're headed, unless the ticket-boy (called fottorino) doesn't beat you to it by announcing it loudly. Then, let them know when you want to get off ("Stop!" is a universally understood command). 2 Nakfa.
Finally there are the yellow taxis, most of which also run on fixed routes on the main streets like the white minivans. They have a similar system to the minivans, and the fare is 5 Nakfa. You'll most likely be sharing the ride with 3 other people. Since some cabs do not use fixed routes, some will take you personally to where you want to go. These taxis are called contract taxis, and you will have to negotiate the price with the driver. The price depends on how far you're travelling, but most contract drivers charge, at a minimum, 70 Nakfa. These cabs usually wait outside the airport when a plane is coming in, the city's main hotels (Asmara Palace Hotel, Nyala, Ambassador etc.), the road to the right of the main cathedral downtown and other obvious spots. They can also be hailed on any street, but many cabs are on a fixed route with passengers already in them.
Renting a car is insanely expensive and fuel prices are higher than in Europe. Renting a cab to drive you around town is also quite expensive, but affordable. Be prepared to pay around 3000 - 6000 Nakfa for a weekend with a driver. It is perhaps better to take the bus or contact one of the national tour agencies (ask at the information desk at the airport upon arrival).
The official languages of Eritrea are Tigrinya, English and Arabic, with Tigrinya used for most offical purposes. Because Eritrea was an Italian colony (1890-1942/7), Italian is widely understood and spoken. In addition, people understand --and some still speak-- Amharic (Amarinya), the official language of Ethiopia. English, however, will get you only so far.
Asmara Historic Perimeter
Asmara today is in the center of the world in terms of cleanness, tranquillity and architectural style, what it makes it unique and so lovely are the public buildings, villas, and mansions of Art Deco (or Decorative Art). They were built from different architectural styles ranging from Art Deco to Futuristic and Rationalist . The architectural design of the buildings is very unique and especially the facades are catchy to watch. They are majestic and some of them look like sailing ships and monuments dear to remember.
Others look like exotic falls from alien worlds (or otherworldly thing), and still others look like so wonderful paints of a genus artist. Anyone could observe by strolling to the Coptic Orthodox Church the Cathedral, the Mosque, the cinemas and what have you in the heart of the city which are a wonderful pieces of architecture. The majestic scenery of the buildings of Asmara highlighted by umbrella like palm trees are by themselves inviting to appreciate and give pleasure to see and admire.
Asmara is an ideal place to appreciate and to quench the nostalgia for the early 20th century Art Deco. That is why foreign visitors are heard saying people of Asmara are living in a museum. Thus, Asmara is an open air museum. Asmara and its Art Deco were built in the first four decades of the 20th century by mass labour force of its native people, and with few Italian lire and engineers. Most Art Deco buildings in the world are found in few cities. In Asmara, they are intact, preserved and old (as saying has it, ‘Old is Gold’), whereas those in Europe and other places were destroyed either by the two Great Wars or by the successive modernization waves or both.
Places of Interest in Asmara
Asmara Cathedral File:Asmara Cathedral- with a bell tower that reaches high into the sky, the Cathedral of Asmara is a sterling piece of Lombard-Romanesque architecture and a useful bearing point for lost travelers.
Enda Mariam Orthodox Cathedral (St. Mary) - The ancient church is located at the center of the city and symbolizes the four directions of the earth (east, west, north and south) the four gates on each direction haver an equal number of worshipers passing through them every day.
At the compound of this church you will find a tree colled "Berberestelim" long ago prists use to wash dead bodies by adding these tree leaves into the water and the body stays as it is for years.
Asmara Theatre and Opera House - Constructed in 1920, the Asmara Opera House is an amazing Italian Architectural piece.
Al Khulafa Al Rashiudin Mosque - Is one of the most elegant Mosques in Africa. The architecture is eclectic a mix Italian and local Moorish styles.
Fiat Tagliero - One a very few futuristic architectural pieces ever built in the World. It is an old service station designed to look like an airplane. It has two ~70 ft cantilevered wings, acting as a cover for each side.
If you are in Asmara for a short stay, the best thing to do after you're done sightseeing in this city is to head for the outskirts where the scenery is stunning at the very least.
Unless you come from a high altitude area yourself, you need a couple of days of strolling in Asmara to get your body used to the thin dry air at 2,600 meters (8,530 ft).
Bring lots of sunscreen lotion but also a sweater as it can get really chilly not only at night but even when standing in the shade (temperatures can vary greatly on different sides of the same street depending on the position of the sun). The sun shines very bright throughout the day in Africa, especially so in Asmara where clouds are rare, so unless you enjoy squinting, bring UV blocking shades.
If you like hiking, rock climbing and mountainbiking, the above mentioned areas outside of town are excellent places to do so, but bring your own gear (including bike) as there are no rental bikes and a very limited supply of safety equipment (shoes, ropes, etc.) in Asmara. However, tents and mosquito nets are readily available at an affordable price in the marketplace downtown. Also consult the locals and bring a guide, because it is good to have someone familiar with the place who speaks the local language in case of an accident or any other eventuality (like what is legal and not legal). For example, taking pictures around any government installation or authority (police, airport, ministries etc.) is strictly forbidden, and your guide can help you get out of such sticky situations.
Finally, take time to savor some good food in Asmara. Don't drink any "fresh" fruit juices or eat any ice cream unless you want health issues to mess up your time. Stick to bottled drinks, unpeeled fruits and cooked food.
The currency is the Eritrean Nakfa. It is pegged to the US Dollar. There are 15 Nakfas to the USD. Coins are issued in denominations of 1 cent, 5 cents, 10 cents, 25 cents, 50 cents and 100 cents and 1 Nakfa. Banknotes are issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 Nakfas.
The best Eritrean souvenirs are traditional handicrafts made from leather, olivewood, clay and straw. These can be found in most souvenir shops in Asmara along with traditional home-spun cotton garments. Posters and postcards are also readily available at most press-kiosks even at the airport. Leopard and zebra skin as well as ivory items can be found in the souvenir markets, but you will be stopped from leaving Eritrea with these. Then, you will probably be stopped and fined at your home destination, because international trade in such materials is banned. Eritrea however has several souvenirs made from goatskin. Gold, pearl, and silver jewelry is also available in the markets in Asmara along with frankincense and myrrh. Beware buying textiles such as home-spun cotton garments, animal skins with fur and mats; they could be infested with parasites. Make sure it has been washed, treated and dried before returning home.
Eritrea is generally a very cheap place to shop, eat, travel and spend time (Hotel prices, apart from the pricey 5-star Intercontinental in Asmara, are also very cheap). The only things that could be expensive in the country are understandably imports (especially fuel), services that depend on imports (up-scale restaurants, hotels, private transport or flights) and various government fees (visas, airport taxes, travel permits etc.). If you stay away from imports (or bring such things as toiletries and cosmetics), eat locally, stay at regular budget hotels (especially the government-owned), and travel on public transportation, you need less than $50 per day for food, lodging and transport.
Eritrean cuisine in the highlands (around Asmara) consists largely of spicy dishes and is very similar to Ethiopian food. The staple is a flat, spongy crepe or bread called injera, made from a batter of fermented grains. Spicy stews with meat and vegetables are served on top of it and eaten with the hands. This cuisine is generally found in many restaurants in the country.
Middle Eastern dishes such as shahan-ful (bean stew) served with pitas are also readily available everywhere but more commonly eaten for breakfast or brunch in modest establishments.
Lowland cuisine is not readily available in many restaurants, but in the old town (outermost island) of Massawa, adjacent to the freeport area, there are some simple restaurants that serve cuisine typical to the Red Sea area such as grilled spicy fish and "khobzen" (pitas drenched in goats butter and honey).
Owing to its colonial history, Italian food is abundant, albeit not too varied all across Eritrea. You will always find a restaurant that serves good pasta, lasagna, steak, grilled fish, etc.
In Asmara, there are also several Chinese restaurants, a Sudanese restaurant, and an Indian restaurant (Rooftop).
The most common beverage in Eritrea by far is beer. There is only one (state-owned) brand in the country so there is not much choice, but it is quite good. Beer is consumed cold in Eritrea! Beer's popularity is closely followed by various soft drinks, and the most common flavors are as elsewhere in the world: orange, lemon/lime and cola flavors, produced by one of the most recognizable brands in the world. The same company that holds the beer monopoly also holds the monopoly on producing the local form of Sambouca, colloquially called "Araqi", as well as Vermouth and other spirits. International brands of the same spirits, as well as others, are readily available at most bars for a cheap price. Sophisticated cocktails are not known in Eritrea (as of yet) outside of the Intercontinental Hotel which charges a steep price. On a side note, there is an Irish bar in that hotel.
Traditionally Eritreans also drink the local form of mead called "suwa", which consists of old bread fermented in water with honey, as well as a sweet honeywine called "mies".
Tap water should not be drunk by foreigners. There is plenty of relatively cheap bottled mineral water, both carbonated and non-carbonated in Eritrea.
Cafes in some towns offer fresh fruit juices. Unpeeled fruits can be eaten or squeezed fresh by you. Avoid "ready-squeezed" juices as well as ice creams and all types of salads. Stick to bottled drinks and cooked foods.
There are hotels at all prices and standard ranges in Asmara, from the modest ones for 200 Nakfa ($30 per night) to the overpriced Intercontinental Hotel Asmara, the only international hotel present in the country at the moment, (a little over $150 per night). Some hotels have one price for foreigners and another for locals. In most smaller towns, the lodging is quite modest and priced accordingly. The only expensive hotels outside of Asmara would be the two hotels on the sea in Massawa, neither of which exceeds $65 per night as of 2007. Modest in Eritrean terms usually means shared bathroom with several other guests, no room-service, a common room TV, no air-conditioning and no change of sheets or cleaning throughout occupancy unless asked for (and then you might be charged extra just as if you had your clothes washed and ironed, which is also readily available for an additional price). The middle-range hotels will have all these missing amenities (private bathroom, TV, air-conditioning, etc.) but no room-service nor inclusive laundering of sheets or clothes during occupancy. Restaurants and/or cafes are available at most mid-range hotels are regular hangout places for non-guests. In a hot place like Massawa, it is very highly recommended to stay at least at a middle-range hotel where air-conditioning is available. The only hotel that accepts credit cards in Eritrea is the Intercontinental (for a fee) and it is also the only hotel in the entire country with a swimming pool (both indoor and outdoor), gym and other common amenities in a modern standard hotel. Most, if not all, hotels beyond the towns of Asmara, Massawa, Keren and Assab are of the modest category. There are reported to be mid-range hotels in Nakfa, Barentu and Tessenei as well as resorts in Gel'alo and Dahlak (on the South coast and east of Massawa, respectively).
There are opportunities to go to Eritrea to teach and/or to do research projects at the country's institutions of Higher Education and Ministries. However, funding must be provided by your home country as well as a clearance from an Embassy of Eritrea.
Working in Eritrea for an Eritrean employer (state or private) and for an Eritrean wage is not an attractive prospect for most Westerners or people reading Wikitravel. Most foreigners in Eritrea work for foreign employers (the UN, the few remaining NGOs, Foreign Companies, Foreign Embassies and related agencies as well as the International School). A few foreigners, mainly from South Asia, work for the Eritrean government in various state-job contracts. Most, if not all, of these individuals acquired their jobs in their home country and/or were recruited and provided with their legal documentation by the Eritrean government while in their home country. It is unusual and perhaps difficult to arrive in Eritrea on a tourist visa and later apply for a work and residence permit while there.
Watch out for bicycle riders, vehicle drivers and pedestrians. Look when crossing streets, and bike riding accidents are common. Eritrea is generally safe and you can walk about at night and anywhere in the cities and not worry about crime. There are sometimes children that aggressively beg but usually leave you alone if you are stern with them.
Do not drink the tap water and even check bottled water to make sure the cap is sealed. Be very careful what you eat. Many people get sick here. There is a Jordanian UN hospital that will treat foreigners. Local hospitals have inadequate facilities. Be healthy if you come here. Avoid uncooked food and unbottled drinks.
Practice safe sex, adult HIV/AIDS is currently 0.8%, so not an issue. But still be aware just as if you were in any country.