The Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា ឬ ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា) (sometimes transliterated as Kampuchea to more closely represent the Khmer pronunciation) is a Southeast Asian nation bordered by Vietnam to the east, Laos to the north, Thailand to the northwest, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.
Cambodia has had a pretty bad run of luck for the last half-millennium or so. Ever since the fall of Angkor in 1431, the once mighty Khmer Empire has been plundered by all its neighbours. It was colonized by the French in the 19th century, and during the 1970s suffered heavy carpet bombing by the USA. After a false dawn of independence in 1953, Cambodia promptly plunged back into the horrors of civil war in 1970 to suffer the Khmer Rouge's incredibly brutal reign of terror, and only after UN-sponsored elections in 1993 did the country begin to totter back onto its feet.
Much of the population still subsists on less than the equivalent of US$1 a day, the provision of even basic services remains spotty, and political intrigue remains as complex and opaque as ever; but the security situation has improved immeasurably, and increasing numbers of visitors are rediscovering Cambodia's temples and beaches. Siem Reap, the gateway to Angkor, now sports luxury hotels, chic nightspots, ATMs, and an airport fielding flights from all over the region, while Sihanoukville is getting good press as an up-and-coming beach destination. However travel beyond the most popular tourist destinations is still an adventure.
It is important to remember that Cambodian history did not begin with the Khmer Rouge. Pol Pot's incredibly harsh regime has garnered most attention, but the Cambodians have enjoyed a long and often triumphant history. Anybody who witnesses the magnificent temples at Angkor can attest to the fact that the Khmer Empire was once wealthy, militarized, and a major force in the region. Its zenith came under Jayavarman VII (1181-ca. 1218), where the Empire made significant territorial gains from the Cham. The Khmer Empire stretched to encompass parts of modern day Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Laos and Vietnam.
The period following the fall of the Khmer Empire has been described as Cambodia's dark ages. Climatic factors precipitated this fall, where the Ankorian civilization harnessed Cambodia's water for agriculture through elaborate systems of canals and dams. The Khmer Empire never recovered from the sacking by its neighbours, based in Ayutthaya (in modern day Thailand), and Cambodia spent much of the next 400 years until French colonization squeezed and threatened by the rivalries of the expanding Siamese and Vietnamese Empires to the West and East. Indeed, on the eve of French colonization it was claimed that Cambodia was likely set to cease to exist as an independent kingdom entirely, with the historian John Tully claiming “there can be little doubt that their [the French] intervention prevented the political disappearance of the kingdom”.
The French came to dominate Cambodia as a protectorate from the 1860s, part of a wider ambition to control the area then termed Indochina (modern day Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos). The French were always more concerned with their possessions in Vietnam. Education of Cambodians was neglected for all but the established elite. It was from this elite that many "Red Khmers" would emerge. Japan's hold on Southeast Asia during the Second world War undermined French prestige and following the Allied victory Prince Sihanouk soon declared independence. This was a relatively peaceful transition; France was too absorbed with its struggle in Vietnam, which it saw as more important to its conception of L'Indochine francaise.
Prince Sihanouk was the main power figure in the country after this. He was noted for making very strange movies in which he starred, wrote and directed. His rule was characterized at this point with a Buddhist revival and an emphasis on education. This was a mixed blessing, however. He succeeded in helping create an educated elite who became increasingly disenchanted with the lack of jobs available. As the economic situation in Cambodia deteriorated, many of these young people were attracted to the Indochinese Communist Party, and later the Khmer Rouge.
As the Second Indochina War spread to Cambodia's border (an important part of the "Ho Chi Minh trail"), the USA became increasingly concerned with events in the country. The US Air Force bombed Cambodia from 1964 to 1973. During this campaign, which was initially codenamed Operation Menu, 540,000 tonnes of bombs were dropped. Estimates of the death toll range from 40,000 to 150,000. Most of the bombing was done in support of Khmer Republic military forces fighting the Khmer Rouge and North Vietnam. In total, from 1964 to 1973 the US dropped 2.7 million tonnes of bombs on Cambodia: more than the combined amount dropped by all the Alllies in all theatres during World War II.
In March 1970, while overseas to visit Moscow and Beijing, Sihanouk was overthrown by Lon Nol and other generals who were looked upon favourably by the United States. Sihanouk then put his support behind the Khmer Rouge. This change influenced many to follow suit; he was after all considered a Boddhisatva. Meanwhile the Khmer Rouge followed the Vietnamese example and began to engender themselves to the rural poor. Between 200,000 and 300,000 people died in the civil war including US air campaigns.
Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns. Over 1 million people (and possibly many more) died from execution or enforced hardships. Those from the cities were known as "new" people and suffered worst at first. The rural peasantry were regarded as "base" people and fared better. However, the Khmer Rouge's cruelty was enacted on both groups. It also depended much upon where you were from. For example, people in the East generally got it worse. It is debated whether or not the Khmer Rouge began "crimes against humanity" or a protracted "genocide". There are claims there were a disproportionate number of ethnic Chams killed, and the ethnically Vietnamese also suffered persecution. Nonetheless, the Khmer also suffered often indiscriminate mass killings. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and ended 13 years of fighting (but the fighting would continue for some time in border areas). As a result of the devastating politics of the Khmer Rouge regime, there was virtually no infrastructure left. Institutions of higher education, money, and all forms of commerce industries were destroyed in 1978, so the country had to be built up from scratch. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the rapid diminution of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed under pressure of the party who lost the elections but enforced his control of powers, after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces. Many leaders of the formal periods kept important positions. They often adopted more liberal views as long they could extract personal profit of the situation.
The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) put Ieng Sary, Pol Pot's brother in law, on trial for 'crimes against humanity'.
The two pillars of Cambodia's newly-stable economy are textiles and tourism. The tourism industry has grown rapidly with over 1.7 million visitors arriving in 2006 and 2.0 million in 2007. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge, as the population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. More than 60% of the population still gets by on subsistence farming. The government is addressing these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors. New construction of roads, irrigation, and agriculture are invested to bring up the rural areas. Government keeps constructing roads and other infrastructure while traffic is limited. It is not clear whether the motivation is development or public spending towards particular constructors. Hydroelectric opportunities do attract foreign investors and a more or less clandestine timber exploitation goes on, particularly where new roads are being built. The sand of Koh Kong island is sold to Singapore. Officially as a way to stabilize border lines, casinos rise upon the country borders.
Economic development bases on the deep-water port of Sihanoukville, the enhancement of electricity supply, the modernization of the railway to be fulfilled by the end of 2013, the construction and pavement of roads. "Cambodia has one of the most investor-friendly environment in ASEAN: no exchange controls, no restriction on repatriation of profits, no discrimination between foreign and local investors; (...) corporate income tax is only 20% and there are tax holidays of up to nine years. Foreigners can also take out leases of land for up to 99 years.
All visitors, except citizens of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam need a visa to enter Cambodia. The official price for a tourist visa is USD30 or USD35 for an "ordinary visa" also known more commonly as "business visa". Staff may try to charge more at some land border crossings: hold out for the official price, particularly at major crossings, but don't be upset if you have to pay USD1-2 extra. The major difference between a tourist and an ordinary/business visa is that a tourist visa can only be extended once, for maximum 2 months of stay in Cambodia, whereas an ordinary/business visa can be extended for periods up to a year or more.
Visas can be obtained at Cambodian embassies or consulates. Visas are also available "on arrival" at both international airports, all six international border crossings with Thailand, some international border crossings with Vietnam, and at the main border crossing with Laos.
To apply for a visa, you will need one or two (depending on where you apply) passport-size photo(s), a passport which is valid for at least 6 months and has at least one completely blank visa page remaining, passport photocopies when applying at some embassies/consulates (not needed if applying on arrival), and clean US$ notes with which to pay the fee (expect to pay a substantially higher price if paying in a local currency). If you don't have a passport photo at visa on arrival in Phnom Penh airport (and possibly other entry points), they will scan in the one on your passport for an extra USD2. Make sure that you are carrying USD with you. There is an ATM in the visa application area, however, it is frequently out of order.
At Phnom Penh airport head to the Visa on Arrival desk, join the queue to the left, where your application form is reviewed (you should have been given the form on the plane). Then move to the right and wait for your name to be called. You then pay and receive your passport with the visa. Officials have difficulties pronouncing Western names so stay alert and listen out for any of your names in your passport, any of your given names or surname may be called. Once reunited with your passport, join the Immigration queue. It's exactly the same procedure at Siem Reap airport.
In Poipet, several scams abound. A favourite is the Cambodian custom officers that ask tourists to pay THB1500 (about USD45) for a visa on arrival, instead of USD30. This includes the embassy in Canberra, Australia. Stand firm but stay friendly and keep smiling, they rarely insist it. Scams on the Thai side of the border, at Aranyaprathet, are even more common. Don't get on a 'government bus to the border', don't accept the help of someone who 'works for Thai Immigration' at your hotel or elsewhere, and don't go to shops marked 'visas available here' next to the border. If you don't have a passport photo immigration officers will scan the one on your passport for USD1-2.
Citizens of most nations can apply for an e-Visa online on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation website, through a service provided by a private Cambodian company (CINet). This is a normal Tourist Visa but costs USD37 instead of the normal USD30. The visa arrives as a PDF file by e-mail within 3 business days. The application requires a digital photograph of yourself (in .jpg or .png format). You can scan your passport photo or have a passport sized photograph taken with a digital camera. There are other websites pretending to make a Cambodian e-visa - at best, these are just online travel agencies which will charge you more (USD30-45) and get the same USD37 visa for you; at worst, you may end up with a fake e-visa.
You need to print two copies (one for entry and one for exit) of the PDF visa, cut out the visa parts and keep them with your passport.
Visas in advance (either online or from an embassy/consulate) save time at the border but are more expensive. However, you do get to skip the queues of people applying for the visas arrival, although sometimes you may simply spend the saved time waiting at the airport luggage belt for your suitcase.
E-Visas are only valid for entry by air or at the three border main land crossings only: Bavet (on the Ho Chi Minh City-Phnom Penh road); Koh Kong (near Trat in Eastern Thailand); and Poipet (on the Bangkok-Siem Reap road). You may exit the country with an e-visa via any border crossing, however read here. Given the general reduction in visa scams at the major land borders, paying the extra USD5 to guarantee the price may (more likely if entering from Thailand) or may not worth it. Getting a tourist visa on arrival for USD30 is more likely than being overcharged. Plus it keeps the option open of the enjoyable Phnom Penh-Chau Doc boat trip (and the use of other minor border crossings)!
Overstaying in Cambodia is dodgy. If you make it to Immigration and are less than 10 days over, you'll probably be allowed out with a fine of KHR50,000 per day. However, if for any reason you're caught overstaying by the police — and drug raids, etc, are fairly common — you'll be carted off to the notoriously unpleasant illegal immigrant holding pens and may be blacklisted from Cambodia entirely. For most people it's not worth the risk: get a legal extension or do a visa run to the nearest border instead.
Extending a Visa
While technically it is possible to extend your visa by going to the immigration authority next to Pochentong airport, it is highly recommended that you use the services of one of the numerous agents that offer this. The commission they charge is likely to be lower than the cost of taking a tuk tuk to immigration and back, and in addition you are likely to save many hours, since these agents have the process streamlined. Nearly all guest houses will handle the visa extension for you, and you will receive your passport back in a couple days.
Direct flights connect Phnom Penh International Airport (previously Pochentong International Airport) with mainland China (Beijing, Guangzhou), France (Paris), Hong Kong, Laos (Vientiane), Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur), Singapore, South Korea (Incheon), Taiwan (Taipei), Thailand (Bangkok) and Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City).
Direct flights connect Siem Reap - Angkor International Airport with Laos (Pakse, Vientiane), Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur), Singapore, South Korea (Incheon, Busan), Thailand (Bangkok) and Vietnam (Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City).
Travellers going specifically to visit the Angkor temple ruins may prefer to use Siem Reap as it's only a few minutes away from the main sites; however as Bangkok Airways has a monopoly on direct flights between Bangkok and Siem Reap, it's a lot cheaper to fly to Phnom Penh and to take the bus (or cross overland from Bangkok).
Low-cost carrier Air Asia has introduced flights from Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok to Phnom Penh and Kuala Lumpur to Siem Reap. Tiger Airways now has direct daily flights between Singapore and Phnom Penh, while Jetstar Asia has begun flying from Singapore to Siem Reap and Phnom Penh.
Other airlines operating flights to/from Cambodia include Asiana Airlines , Bangkok Airways , China Southern Airlines , Dragonair , Eva Airways , Korean Air , Lao Airlines , Malaysia Airlines (MAS) , Shanghai Airlines , Siem Reap Airways  (a subsidiary of Bangkok Airways), SilkAir , Singapore Airlines , Thai Airways International , Vietnam Airlines , and Cebu Pacific Airlines .
All six border crossings with Thailand are open 07:00 to 20:00, each offers Cambodian visas on arrival. All the crossings are served by paved roads in both countries, except the Cambodian side of the Daun Lem crossing, which is being paved as of March 2012.
Thai buses run to but not across each of the crossings: even Chong Sa-Ngam, the last to achieve Thai connections has now gained minibuses that bring gamblers to the new casino in Choam.
In Cambodia, four of the six border towns (Poipet, Koh Kong, Daun Lem and O'Smach) are directly served by buses. Pailin, Anlong Veng and Samraong (each less than 20 km from a border) are each served by buses; motorbikes and shared taxis connect each of the towns with their respective border crossings.
Cambodia's busiest land crossing is at Aranyaprathet/Poipet on the Bangkok - Siem Reap road in North-western Cambodia. Long the stuff of nightmares, the roads are now paved all the way from Poipet to Siem Reap, Battambang and Phnom Penh.
Coastal Cambodia and the southern part of the Cardamom and Elephant Mountains region is served by the Hat Lek/Koh Kong border. The road goes all the way to Sihanoukville. From Trat in Thailand, there a minibuses to the border. In Cambodia, minibuses or taxis connect the border to Sihanoukville and Phnom Penh. The Koh Kong - Sihanoukville boat service no longer runs.
Eastern Thailand is connected to Battambang and Siem Reap by the Ban Pakard (in Chanthaburi Province)/ Phra Prom (near Pailin) crossing, which offers a less stressful and more scenic alternitive to the more northly major crossing at Poipet.
The geographically closest crossing to Battambang is that at Ban Leam (in Chanthaburi Province)/Daun Lem. Paramount Angkor run buses to Battambang though as of March 2012 the road on the Cambodian side is not yet fully paved.
The main crossing is the Moc Bai/Bavet crossing on the Ho Chi Minh City - Phnom Penh road. Buses between the two cities cost US8-12 and take around 6 hrs. Passengers vacate the vehicle at both countries' checkpoints. Only one passport photo is required for a Cambodian visa on arrival. Tours of the Mekong Delta (US$25-35, 2-3 days) can provide a more insightful journey between the two cities.
If you end up on a Kumho Samco bus even after being told the ticket is for another company it is possible to avoid the extra charge by being quick and getting through Vietnam border crossing and then going straight to the Cambodia side 100 meters away. The conductor will wait for all the foreign passports needing visas then jump on a motorcycle (if he is nice you can get a lift if he is leaving to go when you are). It is a gamble but doable as they will threaten to wait only 10 minutes. Ask for a visa on arrival sheet on the bus to have the paperwork ready. If you do miss the bus some buses at least stop less than a kilometer or so down the road for a half hour food stop. Best bet avoid Kumho Samco and the extortion.
Coastal areas are also served by the Tinh Bien/Phnom Den border near Chau Doc in Vietnam.
Stung Treng in Cambodia is connected to Pakse and the Four Thousand Islands region of Laos by the Voeung Kam/Dom Kralor border. Onward transportation is not regularly available. Cambodian and Lao visas available, but require a USD2 fee on both sides of the border. Lao officials also charge a USD2 fee for leaving the country. Expect to pay an extra few dollars on the Cambodian side if you don't have a photo for your visa application. Travel agencies on both sides offer border crossing packages.
To/from Laos - There is one border crossing for tourists on the Mekong, a 90 minute speedboat ride north of Stung Treng. The border guards have few opportunities for "alternative" income, and will usually try to make a few extra dollars from scamming tourists.
To/from Vietnam - It's possible to travel between Ho Chi Minh City and Phnom Penh by boat, or by combination of road and boat. Fast boats leave daily from Chau Doc in Vietnam's Mekong Delta and take 5 hours to reach Phnom Penh. Chau Doc is a four hour drive from Ho Chi Minh City. A popular overland route is to make a three day trip, stopping at Can Tho and Chau Doc before taking the boat to Phnom Penh.
By Microlight Aircraft
Flights to Sihanoukville are now available and cost around $100.
The main operator is Cambodia Angkor Air, a joint venture between the government and Vietnam Airlines, which flies between Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam).
The other operator is Aero Cambodia  Starting service late 2011. Will be operating from Phnom Penh to Ratanakiri, Koh Kong, Sihanukville and most other airports. Charter and scheduled service use twin-engine 10 to 70 seat aircraft.
Helistar Cambodia , a VIP helicopter charter and scenic flights company, operate to virtually anywhere in Cambodia. Helicopters can be chartered to fly from Phnom Penh and Siem Reap for one-way or return journeys. The basic hourly charter rate is US$1700 per flight hour plus 10% VAT and 10% SPT. They operate modern, air-conditioned French-built Eurocopter Ecureuils with luxury leather seating for up to 6 passengers. They also have licenced Australian and foreign pilots. A pick-up and set-down transfer service is also available at both international airports.
The Cambodian government has been frantically upgrading roads throughout the country since about 2008. While great for the country, it does make travel advice quickly obsolete! Finding an unsealed road is actually quite a challenge and most travellers will not have any horror stories of car-swallowing ruts or wet-season quagmires. For the time being (March 2012), notable unpaved roads that would be of use to travellers are: Battambang-Koh Kong (currently a great dirt bike adventure across the mountains or a long detour by bus via Phnom Penh), access to the Banteay Chhmar temples (a high-quality unsealed road, as good as a sealed road during the dry season) and the road between Sen Monorom and Banlung (if there's any remote jungle left in Cambodia, it'll be here). The borders, coast and major cities are all well connected with good roads.
Longer journeys in Cambodia can be taken by bus, pickup truck or shared taxi. In many towns, whichever of these are available will be found at the local market square. Larger towns and cities will have bus stations. Buses may also serve their companies' offices, which may be more convenient than the bus station: this is particularly true in Siem Reap. Mekong Express has the best reputation for comfort and speed and consequently charges a premium. Sorya (formerly Ho Wah Genting) and GST offer a slightly cheaper no-frills service. Capitol Tours offers basic cheap runs between its centrally located offices, making for convenient city centre-to-city-centre travel as well as daily service to Bangkok and Vietnam. Ramshackled peasant mover Paramount Angkor Transport is great for accessing more remote places but low on comfort and safety.
Recently launched bus ticket booking website CamboTicket.com provides an online platform to search multiple destinations within Cambodia (along with the adjoining countries) and provides the flexibility to choose from multiple bus operators. Bookings can be made online with instant confirmation and e-tickets issued and payment can be made securely via credit/debit cards (MasterCard/Visa), WING money transfer and also Cash on delivery (within Phnom Penh).
Bus safety is a big problem in Cambodia. On Highway 5, between Phnom Penh and Battambang, there are dozens of bus crashes annually, many of them horrendous, with multiple fatalities. There are even bus-on-bus crashes. Drivers are untrained, impatient, and (according to those working in roadside fuel stations) sometimes drunk. Most of these accidents go unreported, but frequent travellers on Highway 5 can typically observe half a dozen bus crashes in a month.
Generally bus travel is cheap, with journeys from Phnom Penh to Siem Reap or Sihanoukville costing around USD5. Bring along something warm if you don't like freezing air-conditioning and earplugs if you don't like Khmer karaoke. There are a few night-time services but most buses leave in the morning and the last ones leave in the afternoon.
Some believe taxis are safer for inter-city travel, but taxis also often go way too fast, and so are involved in numerous fatal accidents. The front seat in a taxi from Phnom Penh to Battambang should cost you about USD20.
In cities, motorcycle taxis are ubiquitous. For quick trips across town, just stand on a corner for a moment and someone will offer you a lift - for a small, usually standard, fee of USD1 or less. Unlike their Thai counterparts, they do not wear any identifiable vests but usually will be wearing their helmet or baseball cap and standing next to their motorcycle.
Motorcycle rentals are available in many towns, with the notable exception of Siem Reap. Be careful if driving or riding yourself: driving practices are vastly different from developed countries. Local road 'rules' will also differ from city to city.
There are a number of motorcycle touring companies in Cambodia, such as Ride Cambodia Motorcycle Tours, that run single or multi-day trips across the whole country. This is great for those that want to get far off the beaten path and see the places that a tourist bus could never reach.
Ferries operate seasonally along many of the major rivers. Major routes include Phnom Penh to Siem Reap and Siem Reap to Battambang. The Sihanoukville to Koh Kong ferry no longer runs. Boats are slower than road transport, charge higher prices for foreigners, and are sometimes overcrowded and unsafe. Then again, Cambodia's highways are also dangerous, and boats are probably the safer of the two options. The high speed boat from Phnom Penh to Siem Reap costs US$33 and takes about 6 hours, departing at 7.30am, and offers a spectacular view of rural life along the Tonle Sap river.
There is also a few luxury boats operating between Siem Reap, Phnom Penh and Saigon. For something around 150$/day including accommodation, food and excursions, it's a good alternative to regular boat service.
The boat trip between Siem Reap and Battambang takes longer (especially in the dry season), and is less comfortable and more expensive than taking a seat in a share taxi, but is favoured by some travellers for its close-up view of subsistence farming (and hundreds of waving children) along the river. Taking the boat late in the dry season (April and May) is not advisable as low water levels mean that you must transfer to smaller vessels in mid-river.
Passenger trains ceased in 2009  as the state of the rail infrastructure was dire. The entire network is undergoing an agonizingly slow restoration and it may be possible to hitch a ride on the daily cargo train that may still run for 111 km between Phnom Penh and Touk Meas (near Kampot), if you enjoy that kind of thing. The service was reinstated in October 2010 but was reported to have possibly stopped when Toll, an Australian company, pulled out of the Cambodian rail venture in April 2012. There are plans to link the network with the Thai and Vietnamese railway networks. However, don't hold your breath!
By bamboo train
While it has been possible to travel considerable distances (Battambang to Phnom Penh) on the existing railway tracks by bamboo train (makeshift lorries run by 40HP engines) this is no longer possible. Because of the improved road infrastructure locals no longer use these and in consequence the tracks are overgrown and sometimes crossed by irrigation canals. In addition parts of the stretch are already under reconstruction and thus blocked. The bamboo train is now merely a tourist attraction on an 8km stretch of tracks near Battambang.
With a guide book in the hand
Several publications are freely available in hotels, restaurants, bars ... All tourist guide books include information, maps and advertising about a certain area (Coast/Phnom Penh/Siem Reap).
Coastal -- A free 6-monthly publication promoting the Southern Cambodian Coastal Towns (www.coastal-cambodia.com) Sihanoukville Advertiser -- A free publication covering Sihanoukville and more coastal tourist towns. (www.sihanoukvilleadvertiser.com) Voucher Guide -- A 2-monthly booklet with 7 town maps, discount coupons, a calendar, note book, ... (www.discount-cambodia.com)
The official language of Cambodia is Khmer. Unlike Mandarin and Vietnamese, Khmer is NOT a tonal language (think about the difference in your voice when saying "yes." versus "yes?" - that's tonal), but despite this, everyone will appreciate any attempt you do make so pick up a phrasebook and give it a go. Khmer is a language with many dialects, though the Phnom Penh dialect, also known as Central Khmer, is used as the standard and is taught in all schools. Language schools can be found in all larger Cambodian cities, including Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
In the west, dialects of Thai that are largely incomprehensible to speakers of standard Thai are spoken. Various dialects of Chinese are spoken by the ethnic Chinese community, with Teochew being the dominant dialect in Phnom Penh, and Cantonese speakers also forming a sizeable minority among the Chinese community.
Public signage is generally bilingual, written in both Khmer and English. There is also some prevalance of Japanese and Chinese signs. Where there is English, it will usually be fairly phonetic - for example "Soorssadey" (meaning hello) is pronounced just as it reads: soors-sadey. There is no universal agreement on how to transcribe Khmer letters that don't have an English equivalent. Maps with names in both Khmer and English make it easier for locals to try and help you.
Most Cambodian youths learn English in school, so many young people have a basic grasp of English, though few are fluent. Most "front desk" people in the travel industry speak at least enough English to communicate, and many are relatively fluent; some also speak one or more other languages popular with their clientele, such as Chinese, Japanese, German, etc.
There are many temples around for you to see (as mentioned above). Make sure to have your shoulders and knees covered when entering the temples to give respect to their traditions.
The Cambodian riel (KHR) and US dollar (USD) are both official currencies, with riel only used for small transactions (ie below one dollar). US coins are not used in Cambodia. ATMs will generally only dispense US dollars though some are loaded with both currencies. They generally charge USD5 per withdrawal but Canadia Bank and Mekong Bank are fee free. ATMs are common throughout the country with a surprising penetration even into backwater towns, though if in doubt stock up before a trip into the wild. High denomination notes are easy to break. Even in the smelliest of provincial markets, traders will not flinch at the sight of a USD100 bill, just look for traders with glass cabinets filled with money (they're advertising a service rather than showing off).
The Cambodian Central Bank maintains the riel at around 3,800-4,200 riel to the dollar. In day-to-day commerce, 4,000 riel per dollar is ubiquitous. So USD1.50 is one dollar plus 2,000 riel or 6,000 riel. Riel notes go as high as KHR100,000 (USD25) but KHR10,000 (USD2.50) is the highest denomination that is commonly encountered. Riel only have value outside Cambodia as souvenirs. No one will exchange them.
Near the Thai border (for example Battambang, Koh Kong, and Poipet) Thai baht are commonly used but the locals use a hopelessly unfavourable 40 baht to the dollar as a rule of thumb. Try to change any baht rather than spend them, as banks and money changers will give you USD1 at a cost of about 30 baht. Baht and euros can easily be exchanged in any city. Shop around if a good rate is important to you: sometimes the banks are best, sometimes the market traders.
Torn or old foreign currency notes may be difficult to exchange, except USD1 bills which change hands often. Cambodia banks will refuse USD2 bills and notes without the security strip. Refusing imperfect notes is normal, traders may try to take advantage of tourists' naivete and try to palm off dud notes. Just smile and hand them back.
Banks sometimes operate as Western Union money transfer agents.
ATMs are spreading far beyond the main cities. They are generally compatible with Maestro, Cirrus, Plus, and VISA cards. Cash advances on credit cards may also be possible.
VISA and JCB are the most widely accepted credit cards; MasterCard and American Express cards are slowly becoming more widely accepted.
ATMs dispense US dollars in varying denominations from USD10 to USD100. If you receive bills in poor condition (especially USD50 or USD100) from an ATM attached directly to a bank try to change them there immediately as they may be difficult to change later. 100 and 50 dollar bills may be difficult to use in general in any smaller shop as they will not have change and are advised against. If using them expect them to be inspected with great scrutiny for forgeries, and if they are to be removed from your sight verify the serial number first to avoid them being swapped for counterfeit bills and returned to you because they "can't make change".
Canadia bank ATMs display a "Time per limit exceeded!" error if you try to withdraw more than USD150 and don't pay out. The 150 dollar limit is for cards with the Maestro and MasterCard logo's, VISA cards have a limit of USD1000.
Traveller's cheques, like credit cards, are accepted in major business establishments, such as large hotels, some restaurants, travel agencies and some souvenir shops; American Express (in USD) are the most widely accepted. However, competitive rates are only usually found in banks in Cambodia's larger cities (guesthouses in heavily touristed areas may offer similar services but at horrendous rates). The usual fee for cashing traveller's cheques is 2% and USD2 minimum.
When shopping be sure to look for businesses that display the Heritage Friendly Business Logo. Heritage Watch has launched a campaign that aims to encourage support for Cambodia's arts, culture, heritage and development. Businesses that are giving back to the community are certified as Heritage Friendly by the independent organization and permitted to display either a gold or silver Heritage Friendly logo. Look for the logo to ensure that you are supporting socially responsible corporate citizens! www.stayanotherdaycambodia.com edits a guide about several tourism-oriented ngo's and their offer. The Childsafe Network insists: do not buy from children! Specialized ngo's and schools can not reach the children you keep in streets and on the beach,where they are especially vulnerable.
You can get away with pretty much haggling for anything in Cambodia. Restaurants, outdoor food stalls, even rates for guesthouses. The Khmer are notoriously quiet up, however they are not prepared to lose face and if pushed they lose their temper. A few guidelines:
Siem Reap is the easiest place to bargain, Phnom Penh may be a little harder but still worth trying. Just be polite and please keep in mind that $1-$2 in Cambodia can feed a person for a day - at home it is just pocket money. Many tourists think they get ripped off by a tuk tuk driver, a tour-guide, a restaurant or a hotel. Don't think how much more you have paid compared to a local Cambodian, rather think how many meals the Cambodian can eat with this money (obviously you pay more - salary back home: USD2000-9000/month , x-times higher than the salary of a Cambodian person USD80-300/month).
While not the strongest link in Southeast Asia's chain of delightful cuisine (due to the Khmer Rouge era, Khmer cuisine were nearly wiped out), Khmer food is tasty and cheap. Rice and occasionally noodles are the staples. Unlike in Thailand or Laos, spicy hot food is not the mainstay; black pepper is preferred over chilli peppers, though chillis are usually served on the side. Thai and Vietnamese influences can be noted in Khmer food, although Cambodians love strong sour tastes in their dishes. Prahok, a local fish paste, is common in Khmer cooking and may not please Western palates. There are plenty of Indian and Chinese restaurants in Phnom Penh and the larger towns.
Typical Khmer dishes include:
Don't forget Khmer desserts - Pong Aime (sweets). These are available from stalls in most Khmer towns and can be excellent. Choose from a variety of sweetmeats and have them served with ice, condensed milk and sugar water. A must try is the Tuk-a-loc, a blended drink of fruits, raw egg, sweetened condensed milk and ice.
Happy Pizza can be found in many places (usually with the word 'Happy' in their restaurant name). They are basically sub-par pizza sprinkled with a kind of 'herb' that is illegal in some countries. You may have to ask for it to be added when you order. Best not to be driving or biking after eating.
There is also a wide variety of fresh fruit available from markets. The prices vary according to which fruit is in season but mangoes (around Khmer New Year, with up to 9 varieties on sale) and mangosteen (May/June) are both superb, although may not be as good as neighbouring Thailand's.
Other popular Khmer foods which may be less palatable to foreigners include pregnant eggs (duck eggs with the embryo still inside, you can custom order how big or how many days old of your embryo), and almost every variety of creepy-crawly, including spiders, crickets, water beetles. Also, barbecued rats, frogs, snakes, bats and small birds can be found.
The tap water supply in Phnom Penh has undergone significant changes following a "water revolutionary" in the government, Ek Sonn Chan. Consequently in Phnom Penh you can drink the tap water without problem, although it is highly chlorinated and you may not like the taste. Locals usually do not drink the tap water, and old pipes may make some water non potable.
Also there is some concern about the bottle water vendors: the U.S. Embassy web site says that "In 2008, Cambodia's Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy reported that more than 100 bottled- water companies in Cambodia were being considered for closure for failing to meet minimum production quality standards. Only 24 of the 130 bottled-water companies are compliant with the ministry's Department of Industrial Standards." That page seems to be down on bottled water generally, so take it with a grain of salt.
Outside of Phnom Penh and Siem Reap tap water should be assumed not to be potable. Khmer brand water in blue plastic bottles sell for 1000 riels or less, although prices are often marked up for tourists to 50 cents or a dollar.
Iced coffee is ubiquitous in Cambodia. It is made Vietnamese style, freshly brewed and mixed with sweetened condensed milk. Walk past a local eatery any time of the day and you are bound to see at least a table of locals drinking them. One glass costs between 1500-2000riel. Iced tea made with lemon and sugar is also refreshing and ubiquitous.
Fresh coconut can be found everywhere, you could say it is ubiquitous, and is healthy and sanitary if drunk straight from the fruit.
There is no legal drinking/purchasing age for alcohol, however because of the number of children have been seen on binge drinking adventures, this has become of a concern to the government.
In general, Khmers are not what could be described as casual drinkers: the main objective is to get hammered as quickly as possible. Know your limits if invited to join in!
The two most popular domestic Cambodian beers are Anchor — pronounced "an-CHOR" with a ch sound! — and Angkor. Beer Lao and Tiger are popular beers with foreigners. A plethora of other beers include ABC Stout, which is dark and not so bad, in addition to the standard Heineken and Carlsberg. Cheaper beers include Crown and Leo, whilst Kingdom Beer aims for the premium market with a pilsener and a dark lager. In Phnom Penh some of the foreigner oriented bars have also added harder to find import beers to their menu; the Green Vespa and Garage Bar both now carry a wide selection of English beers.
Palm wine and rice wine are available in villages and can be OK at 500-1000 riel for 1 litre bottle. However, some safety concerns have been raised with regard to sanitation, so the local wines may be best avoided. The rice wine is also not actually a wine but a distilled liquor with varied potency so when drinking it pace yourself until you're sure of its strength. As a home distilled beverage there is also always the risk of improper distillation leading to methanol poisoning.
For a truly Khmer experience, hunt down a bottle of Golden Muscle Wine. Advertised on tuk-tuks everywhere, this pitch-black concoction made from deer antlers and assorted herbs packs a 35% punch and tastes vile when drunk straight, but can be made reasonably palatable (if not exactly tasty) by the addition of tonic water or cola. At US$2 for a 350 ml flask of the original and a budget-busting US$3 for the "X.O." version, it's the cheapest legitimate tipple available.
Drugs, including cannabis, are illegal in Cambodia, and penalties can be very severe.
Western-style accommodation is available in most major towns the country over; even less-touristic places such as Kampong Chhnang have a number of affordable guesthouses or hotels. There are some hotels such as Lotus Lodge  and Frangipani Villa Hotel Group . Basic guesthouses can go as low as US$2/night in the countryside but prices in the cities are usually in the US$5-10 range. At the budget end, expect to provide your own towels etc. If you want air-con and hot water, the price creeps up to close to US$10-20, and you can easily pay over US$100/night if you want to stay in a branded five-star hotel.
Cambodia has fewer opportunities for language and cultural studies for the short-term traveller, though there are many language schools and private teachers advertising for those who are hanging around a bit longer. There are also meditation groups which meet at some of the Buddhist Pagodas in Phnom Penh.
One of the most interesting ways to get to know a country, and which has become increasingly popular, is to volunteer.
Finding a paid job teaching English in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap is easy for English speakers, even if you have no other qualifications, though the salary will be significantly higher with TEFL/CELTA certifications. If you're interested, print out some resumes and start handing them out to various schools.
Cambodia is a safe and friendly country if you stay in the main touristic areas, with the usual exception for large cities late at night, particularly Phnom Penh, and unobserved luggage or wallets. Bag snatching, even from those on bicycles and motorcycles, is a problem in Phnom Penh. Be discreet with your possessions, especially cash and cameras, and as always, take extra care in all poorly lit or more remote areas. If you are renting a motorcycle it has been advised to purchase and use your own lock for securing it as some of the less scrupulous staff at rental companies have been known to use their copy of the key to steal bikes and leave the traveler paying the exceptionally high value estimation. Police assistance in many cases requires some "facilitation" money in a sort of bidding war between the victim and the criminal with "connections" complicating things further making recovery of the motorcycle difficult.
Crime and corruption
Intending visitors should be aware that the rule of law in Cambodia is inconsistently applied. Crimes usually require bribes to be investigated, and if perpetrators are wealthy or connected to the government they will often be untouchable by police and courts. You should also be aware that the courts are corrupt, so contracts are hard to enforce without some political leverage. All this being said, the violent crime rate is fairly low (especially to foreign visitors), the police are generally friendly and non-threatening, and those with common sense have little to fear.
Cambodia suffers from a legacy of millions of land mines left during the war years. However, to tourists, land mines present a minimal to nonexistent threat, as most areas near touristed areas have been thoroughly de-mined. Many tourists mistake electric or sewage warning signs along national highways for land mine signs. HALO Trust, a leading mine removal organization in Cambodia asserts that you would have to drive through the jungle for at least an hour north of Angkor Wat to come across any mines. The threat is to locals in extremely rural areas who rely on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods.
Nevertheless, in remote areas such as Preah Vihear (near the border) and Pailin (a former Khmer Rouge stronghold), exercise caution: ask for local advice and heed warning signs, red paint and red rope, which may indicate mined areas. Do not venture beyond well established roads and paths.
The age of consent in Cambodia is 15, however there are strict laws against the prostitution of 15-18 year olds. Prostitution is theoretically illegal but widespread, although generally not overtly aimed at tourists, with the exception of Phnom Penh and Siem Reap. Many bars and clubs have taxi girls wandering the premises. Bear in mind that Southeast Asia has a fast-growing HIV infection rate, and among Cambodian sex workers this is about 1 in 8. So safe sex is a must in all cases. Cambodia had gained notoriety as a destination for paedophiles in the past. This is less the case now as prostitution of girls under 18 is more hidden in traditional venues. Certain local NGOs like the ChildSafe Network and its 24-hour hotline are vigilant in watching for and soliciting reports on paedophiles, whom they report to police.
Cambodia, one of the world's poorest countries, lacks reliable medical facilities, doctors, clinics, hospitals and medication, especially in rural areas. Even the popular Calmette Hospital in Phnom Penh kills its fair share of patients. Any serious problem should be dealt with in Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City or Singapore, which boast first rate services (at least to those who can afford them). Repatriation is also more easily arranged from either of those cities. Make sure your insurance covers medical evacuation. The private and pricey Thai-owned Royal Rattanak Hospital in Phnom Penh can be trusted for emergency medical care and can treat most diseases and injuries common to the region. Naga Clinic has branches in Siem Reap and Phnom Penh. It is also clean, safe and useful for minor conditions. Phnom Penh's long-serving British doctor Gavin Scott, who is also a tropical medicine expert, has an excellent reputation among expats.
Local hospitals and clinics vary from mediocre to frightening. Expect dirt, poor equipment, expired medicines and placebos of flour and sugar.
In local clinics don't let them put anything in your blood: treat dehydration orally and not with a drip, as there is a risk of septicemia (bacterial blood poisoning). The same goes for blood transfusions.
No health certificates or vaccinations are officially required for entry to Cambodia, unless arriving directly from Africa. However, consult a doctor a few weeks before leaving home for up-to-date advice on inoculations. Generally advised are shots against tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B and meningitis, a polio booster and especially gamma globulin shots (against hepatitis A). Consider malaria tablets for trips to Cambodia of less than 30 days, though the most commonly visited places have minimal risk (see below). A mosquito net may also help. Mosquitoes swarm Siem Reap at dusk, imported (i.e. trusted) DEET based insect repellent is available in Cambodia.
The contents of a basic medical kit-such as panadol, antihistamines, antibiotics, kaolin, oral rehydration solution, calamine lotion, bandages and band-aids, scissors and DEET insect repellent-can be acquired in Siem Reap and Phnom Penh. The particularly fastidious should put their kits together in Bangkok or Saigon before coming to Cambodia. There's no need to bother doing this before coming to Asia.
Phnom Penh is malaria free, and most major tourist attractions (including Siem Reap) are virtually malaria free. The biggest disease worry is mosquito-borne dengue fever which, although quite unpleasant, to say the least (it's called "break-bone fever" because of how it feels) generally isn't life-threatening for first-time victims.
The most common ailment for travelers is diarrhoea, which can deteriorate into dysentery, resulting in dehydration. Stay hydrated by trying to consume 2-3 litres of water per day and don't forget that dehydration can also be brought on by a lack of salt, soy sauce is your friend in this climate.
Avoid untreated water, ice made from untreated water and any raw fruit or vegetables that may have been washed in untreated water. Tap water is generally not drinkable, so avoid. The Phnom Penh supply is potable (strangely, it is one of the world's safest) but nonetheless few people trust it. Cheap bottled water is available in any town or village. Take water purification tablets or iodine to sterilize water if planning to visit more rural areas. Boiling water will also sterilize it without generating piles of waste plastic bottle waste or tainting the taste, however it will not remove arsenic or thermo tolerent coliforms  such as E. coli which may be present in water acquired from ground wells or streams . The water in the jugs at cafes or restaurants will have been boiled, as obviously will have been the tea.
If you do get severe diarrhoea and become badly dehydrated, take an oral rehydration solution and drink plenty of treated water. However, a lot of blood or mucus in the stool can indicate dysentery, which requires a trip to a doctor for antibiotics.
April is the cruellest month: the weather is hottest (> 35 °C) in March and April, use sunscreen and wear a hat to avoid sunstroke.
Prostitutes of both sexes can carry many STDs. The official HIV rate among prostitutes is 34%.
Cambodia is a country at a crossroads. While the more heavily touristed places like Phnom Penh and Siem Reap are well adjusted to tourist behaviour, people in places such as Stung Treng or Banlung are less so. Always ask permission before you take somebody's picture, as many in the more remote areas do not like to be photographed, and some in the urban areas will ask for payment.
Dress for women is more conservative in Cambodia. While shorts are now acceptable in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, it is more respectful to wear knee length shorts or trousers when outside of these areas.
Groups of young children can be found everywhere in Cambodia and many travellers feel 'pestered' by them to purchase their friendship bracelets and other wares. However, it's often the case that children enjoy the chance to practice their English on you- and by asking them their names and ages a conversation is likely to develop where the 'hard sell' is forgotten. Children and adults alike enjoy looking at photographs of your family and home country.
The Khmer Rouge issue is a very delicate one, and one which Cambodians generally prefer not to talk about. However, if you approach it with politeness, they'll gladly respond. People, in general, hold no qualms when talking about the Vietnamese; in fact, they have been widely perceived as liberators when they intervened in Cambodia in 1979 to overthrow the aforementioned brutal regime. The pro-Vietnamese regime gradually rebuilt all the infrastructure that was severely damaged by the Khmer Rouge's policy of de-urbanising the country leading to economic prosperity in the 1980s, with sporadic uprisings.
Cambodia uses the GSM mobile system.
Internet cafes are cheap (US$0.50-US$1/hour) and common, even small towns will have at least one offering broadband. In Kampot, Kratie and Sihanoukville rates are around US$1/hour. WiFi is increasingly popular, with signals available in some unlikely places: not just in coffee shops but also fast food restaurants, bars, and even gas stations. Domestic broadband prices range from $29.95 to $89.00. Always remember vat is added to all prices, and even the locals pay vat.
Fast wireless 3G/4G internet (3.5G or 7.2MBpS 3G/4G Modem usb stick, unlocked 3G/4G modem costs 30$) is now available in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Sihanoukville/Kampot/Kep with slower Edge coverage in almost all other areas. Tourists can add 3G/4G mobile internet to their SIM for as little as $3/month (0.8GB max, LT3 package)(Metfone) or 1c/MB with Qbmore or unlimited data package for $25/month (Metfone), equipping another 3G router can form a WiFi hotspot to share internet in your house/neighbourhood.
Khmer does not yet have a big presence in the electronic world as do Thai or Vietnamese. Phones and computers, and hence Cambodian text messages, emails, social network slobbering and web pages tend to be in English or Khmer transliteration, though Khmer Unicode fonts are becoming more popular and widely available.
Once a disaster, a trip to the post office in Cambodia no longer means a final good bye to your consignment. Intercontinental postcards should arrive in 2 weeks; within Asia, 1 week. Domestic rates are cheap however international customs fees and rates can be high, though still less that private carriers. Some foreign customers have experienced varied results on occasion still. Packages that disappear or have been gone through with some items missing. Contact by the post office to notify you that your package has arrived is also unreliable and you should go in person when you suspect your parcel should have arrived.