Balochistan or Baluchistan (Urdu/Balochi:بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan.
The Baloch people once referred to their land as Moka or Maka, a word which later became Makran. Moka might have been an adaptation of Mahi-khoran, Persian for "fish eaters", an appellation used by the Persians of the west for the people of coastal Balochistan. Arrian, in his Anabasis Alexandri, referred to the people of the region as the Ichythophagi, a Greek translation of Mahi-khoran.
Balochistan is referred to in Pashto as Gwadar or Godar (also Godar-khwa, i.e., the land by water). The Greeks, who derived the names of Iranian lands from the Bactrian language, Hellenised it to Gedrosia.
In an eleventh-century Sanskrit compilation of Jataka tales (Avadānakalpalatā) by Kshemendra of Kashmir, the land is called Baloksh (बलोक्ष). From Baloksh, the name evolved and was Persianised to Balochistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch (or Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush) tribes, an Iranian people, who moved into the area from the west around 1000 A.D. All natives are considered Balochi even if they do not speak Balochi; Pashto, Persian, and Brahui languages are also spoken in the region. The southern part of Balochistan is known as Makran. There are also relatively smaller communities of Iranian Baloch, Hazaras, Sindhis and other settlers, including Punjabis, Uzbeks, and Turkmens. The name Balochistan means "the land of the Baloch" in many regional languages.
Balochistan provincial region of SW Pakistan has an area of 134,051 mi2 or (347,190 km2). It covers 48% of Pakistani territory;
Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad are the main gateways to Pakistan by air. However, there are 134 airfields in Pakistan. Six other international airports are in Peshawar, Quetta, Faisalabad, Turbat, Multan and Gwadar.
Balochistan has train links with other parts of Pakistan and Iran, though none of these trains are the fastest or most practical way to enter Pakistan. Should speed be a priority it is better to take the bus, or if you are really in a hurry, to fly, however the trains are sights in their own right.
From Iran: One comes to Pakistan from Iran via the Mirjaveh border in Iran which is half an hours drive from Zahedan. The Pakistani border town is called Taftan and has facilities of immigration, customs, hotels etc, although it's a much better idea to head directly to Quetta and not stick around. There are buses to Quetta in the early afternoon, taking 12-14 hours.
Buses or coaches are the best way to get around Baluchistan.
If you want to enjoy an excursion near the city, you can visit to Hanna Lake. It is in the hills overlooking Quetta, approximately 10 km from the city and very close to the Urak, where benches and pavilions on terraces have been provided. Golden fish in the lake come swimming right up to the edge. A little distance away, the waters of the lake take on a greenish blue tint. Right where the water ends, pine trees have been planted on the grass filled slopes. The turquoise water of lake is a stark contrast to the brownish-green hills that surround the area.
Wagon service operates from city bus station at Circular Road. The transport can be hired through the PTDC Tourist Information Centre, Muslim Hotel, Jinnah Road Quetta.
Hazarganji Chiltan National Park
Hazarganji literally means "Of a thousand treasures". In the folds of these mountains, legend has it, that, there are over a thousand treasures buried, reminders of the passage of great armies down the corridors of history. The Bactrian, Scythians, Mongols and then the great migrating hordes of Pashtuns, all passed this way.
In the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, 20 km southwest of Quetta, Markhors have been given protection. The park is spread over 32, 5000 acres, altitude ranging from 2000 to 3200 meters.
Nature lovers, students, scientists and researchers are welcome to visit the park at any time of the year. For overnight stay, accommodation is available at the Forest Department Rest House located five kilometers inside the Park.
Park Rangers help the visitors to see animals. Access trails have been developed in the park for visitors. A small museum of natural history is located near the Park entrance.
Located 10kms west of Quetta
Has a collection of rare antique guns, swords and manuscripts. It has a display of Stone Age tools, prehistoric pottery and articles found from Mehrgarh. There are also coins, manuscripts and photos of Quetta before 1935 earthquake.
Amusement and Recreation
The Askari Park at the Airport Road and Liaquat Park on Shahrah-e-Iqbal offer amusement and recreational facilities. Balochistan Arts Council Library is located on Jinnah Road. The Chiltan Hill viewpoint on Brewery Road offers a panoramic view of Quetta. Karkhasa is a recreation Park situated at distance of 10 km to the west of Quetta. It is a 16 km long narrow valley having a variety of flora like Ephedra, Artemisia and Sophora. One can see birds like partridges and other wild birds in the park. Limited recreational facilities are provided to the visitors through the Forest Department, Spinney Road, Quetta.
Driving through wild roses and fruit orchards, you may reach the Urak Valley at a distance of 21 km. The abundance of delicious fruits makes it a real fruit land or SAMARISTAN.
Filled with numerous fruit orchards, the Pishin Valley is 50 km away from Quetta. These orchards are irrigated by ‘karez’. There is yet another attraction of cool waters, i.e. man-made lake with Bund Khushdil Khan. A wide range of ducks provides enticing beauty during winters. The festivities include a colorful programme of folk dancing by thousands of participants from different regions. Horse jumping, trick horse riding, trick motor cycle riding, dare-devil motor car driving and a dog & hare race are among the highlights of the festival. The principal attraction of the show, however, remains the impressive display of the best available specimens of Pakistani livestock. As the sun sets over the impressive Fortress Stadium, the venue of the show, fireworks display, military tattoos and brass band pageants enliven the evenings and enthrall the spectators.
A visit to Quetta will however, be incomplete without a trip to Ziarat (133 km from Quetta, 3 hours by car), a hill town 8000 feet above sea-level Air-conditioned coach and taxis take anything between an hour or two from Quetta an ideal and relaxing summer retreat with rows of juniper trees and ever green slopes.
The word Ziarat means holy place to be visited and the valley is known by that name because of a shrine of a holy saint, Tahir Baba Kharwari. There are other graves as well. However, the world knows it more because of the oldest and tallest juniper jungle, which needs to be looked after properly for future survival.
Ziarat is also famous for being the site of Mohammad Ali Jinnah's summer vacation home. It is incidentally the home he passed away in- and is now a museum of his personal belongings and living space- visited by people from all over Pakistan.
Extremely delicious species of apple, black cherry and almond trees are abundant in Ziarat, covering about 4416 acres in the lap of mountains.
While Ziarat abounds in tall chinar trees and juniper grows wild as does walnut and a variety of other trees, the area west of this hill station leading up to the Afghan border is rocky and barren. The drive through this unfriendly terrain provides one the grim reminder of the fierce tribes who roamed free in the region and kept the British weary and fearful. The border village of Chaman is also a major trading centre for a variety of fruit, a large quantity of which is still brought in from Afghanistan.
At a distance of 70 km from Quetta on Sibi Road is situated a popular picnic spot known as Pir Ghaib. Here a waterfall cascades down rocky mountain side making its way through many streams and ponds among the shady palm trees. You need a 4-wheeled transport to reach the spot from the main road.
This Pass will lead you directly to the Chaman Border of Afghanistan, 153 km from Quetta. The scenic beauty is simply enthralling. The border journey is to be materialized through Khojak Sheela, a 4 km long tunnel, at an elevation of more than 1945 meters above sea level.
If you have a passion for smelling history through places, you must visit the Bolan Pass, where several armies from Central Asia and north intruded into Balochistan through centuries. The picturesque hilly road welcomes you with cool breeze.
While cruising through the hilly tract between Quetta and Kalat, you would come to see the route to Zahidan, Iran. Koh-e-Taftan and Saindak copper mines are en-route.
The entire population of Kharwari Baba and for that matter of the entire Ziarat, migrates to Harnai in extreme winter. Harnai Pass, about hours drive from Loralai, is just as spectacular as the Khyber Pass near Peshawar.
Mehergarh- the newest discovery of ancient civilization
During recent decades, a lot has been done to explore the culture and civilization of ancient people. The most distinguishing one is Mehergarh, which experts say remained the centre of high development some 9,900 years ago. Researchers claim that this was a civilized society of 7000 B.C that is even older than Moenjodaro and Harappa.
Typical Balochi cusine includes the lamb-skewed Sajji which have gained massive popularity among other parts of Pakistan, including the food hubs of Karachi and Lahore. Kaak, a rock-hard prepared bread, is another a notable dish. Khaddi Kabbab is a dish in which a whole lamb or goat is cooked on fire, usually there is raw rice in the stomach of the lamb and the rice is cooked by the fats of the lamb. people living in the coat cook in their own styles.
In the old bazaars one comes across quaint old tea-shops. These are the local "clubs". There are also many popular eating houses offering different types of delicacies. Among the delicacies you must try is Sajji (leg of lamb), which is roasted to a delightful degree of tenderness and is not very spicy. It is a whole leg of lamb deliciously marinated in local herbs and spices and barbecued beside an open fire. It is very popular among the locals and is offered with great insistence to the guests. The Pathan tribesmen of the valley also enjoy Landhi (whole lamb) and Khadi Kebab. “Landhi” is a whole lamb which is dried in shade and kept for the winters. "Kebab" shops are very popular, the best being Lal Kebab, Tabaq, Cafe Farah and Cafe Baldia. They serve Pakistani and Continental food, while ENTER THE DRAGON Chinese Restaurant has the honor of winning the best Chinese restaurant award amongst 70 countries twice in a row. The other Chinese restaurant that is one of the oldest in town is CAFE CHINA. Some of the finest mutton in the country is raised around Quetta. It has a delicious smell which can be sampled in the Pulao that most of the eating houses offer.
The Pashtun people are also very famous for their refreshing green tea and Dood Pati shops
Very few places can compete with Quetta valley in having wide range of tasteful fruits, exported to all parts of the country as well as abroad. There you can find plums, peaches, pomegranates, apricots, apples, olives, different types of melon, water-melon, cherries, pistachios, almonds and other dry fruits. Saffron and tulip are also grown and cultivated on a commercial scale. The fruits heaven is Urak, called SAMARISTAN meaning the land of fruits in Persian.
You should seek advice from tourist offices and embassies about which areas are safe and which are not. Travel to some portions of Balochistan is not advisable or requires an armed escort.