Badlands National Park
In addition to the rock formations, the park contains the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. The most endangered land mammal in North America, the black footed ferret, was re-introduced to the 64,000-acres Badlands Wilderness Area. The park also contains the world's richest fossil beds from the Oligocene epoch, dating back around 20-35 million years.
During the youth of the Rocky Mountains, about 60 million years ago, large number of streams carried eroded soil, rock and other materials eastward from the range. These materials were deposited on the vast lowlands which are today called the Great Plains. Dense vegetation grew in these lowlands, then fell into swamps, and was later buried by new layers of sediments. Millions of years later, this plant material turned into lignite coal. Some of the plant life became petrified, and we can find large amounts of exposed petrified wood in the badlands. While sediments continued to be deposited, more streams cut down through the soft rock layers, carving the variety of mesas, buttes, rock formations, pinnacles, spires and valleys are the features of the badlands seen today.
For eleven thousand years humans used the area for hunting. They hunted bison, rabbits, and other animals.
Fossils hunters arrived after the 1840s. Trappers traveling from Fort Pierre to Fort Laramie collected fossils. One fossil ended up being described in the American Journal of Science. Within decades new species were being discovered.
Homesteaders arrived at the end of the 19th century and the US government removed the natives from their land. This culminated in the massacre at Wounded Knee, which is approximately 45 miles south of the park in the Pine Ridge Reservation.
The Dust Bowl of the 1930s prompted many homesteaders to move elsewhere. Some who stayed are still there today.
The United States Air Force took possession of more than 340,000 acres of the Pine Ridge Reservation and about 340 acres of what was then Badlands National Monument and used it extensively between 1942 and 1945 as a gunnery range. This is now the Stronghold unit of the park and is co-managed with the Oglala Sioux Tribe. Unexploded ordnance remains in the area.
Flora and fauna
While the badlands terrain may appear to be barren, there is a great variety of wildlife and plant life here. The minimal annual precipitation feeds the grasses and wildflowers of the badlands. The brilliant colors of the blooms add to the palette of grays, browns, reds, ochres and greens of the land. The wildlife includes nearly two hundred species of birds, (mule and white tail) deer, prairie dogs, pronghorn, big horn sheep, and bison. Other mammals in the park include bats, rabbits, and coyotes. The park has reintroduced the black footed ferret, the most endangered land mammal in North America, to the Sage Creek Wilderness area. Reptiles and amphibians include frogs, toads, and snakes.
Non-native species of plants
Dozens of non-native species of plants have been brought by settlers through deliberate or accidental means. The park is actively working to remove the non-native plants and restore the prairie to its original condition.
The park is windy. Summers are hot and winters are cold.
Winter begins in November, although blizzards in late October may occur. High temperatures around 40° F (4.4° C) with lows below 0° F (-18° C) and high winds creating much lower windchill. Snow is likely and blizzards are possible.
March is difficult. Temperatures may fluctuate dramatically within a few hours. Blizzards are still possible, and so is 60° F (15.5° C) weather.
Spring begins in April. With snow melting and April rains, the park is very wet. The unpaved roads can be difficult or impossible to pass and trails may be slippery and unpleasant. Temperatures at night is typically below freezing. The park receives most of its rain between April and June. Showers may be brief or last for days.
July is hot and dry. Daytime temperatures can surpass 90° F (32° C).
August is the hottest when temperatures can break 100° F (38° C). Evenings are about 75° F (24° C).
In September the temperatures begin to cool off in the second half of the month.
October is much cooler although a few days may break 80° F (27° C).
The badlands are formed by water and wind erosion, losing about an inch (2.54 centimeters) a year. About five millions years ago the land uplifted and triggered the erosion proccesses that created the badlands.
The fossils found in the park date from The Age of Mammals, including ancestors of the modern day rhinoceros, horse, dog, and others. Fossilized sea shells and turtle shells have also been found in the park. There are no dinosaur fossils in the park.
Approximately 30 million years ago the area was warmer and lush. Many mammals roamed the area and died in floods and quickly buried in sediment, providing an abundance of vertebrate fossils.
Digging and/or moving fossils or artifacts from their locations in the ground is prohibited by Federal law. Offenders are subject to heavy fines and possibly jail.
The park's goal of maintaining the prairie ecosystem requires using fire. Park visitors, however, should not start any fires anywhere in the park.
The park is about 50 miles southeast of Rapid City on South Dakota State Route 44.
Rapid City Regional Airport  is served by five airlines with nonstop service to Minneapolis, Denver, Chicago, Phoenix, Las Vegas, and Salt Lake City. Onsite car rental services are available.
Greyhound serves Rapid City.
An entry pass good for one year is available for $30. Otherwise, people who drive a non-commercial vehicle can buy a 7 day pass for $15. Hikers, cyclists and motorcyclists can get a 7 day pass for $10.
Members of the Oglala Sioux tribe can buy the 7 day pass at half price.
An America the Beautiful Interagency Annual Pass is available for $80 that allows entry into any National Park for one year. There are also discounted passes available to the disabled and persons over 62 years of age that allow lifetime access to all national parks.
Commercial Vehicles should contact (605) 433-5361 for rates.
Dogs and other pets are allowed in the park but only in developed areas such as campgrounds, parking lots, and along the roads. Leashes are required and must not be longer than 6 feet (1.8 meters). Pets are not allowed on the hiking trails. Dogs and other pets are not allowed in the Badlands Wilderness Area.
The Badlands Loop Road is the main road and the only paved road in the park. The speed limit is 45 miles per hour (72 km per hour) unless otherwise posted. Seat belts are required at all times. Do not pull off the road onto the grass but do pull off to allow traffic to pass; however, only pull off where there is sufficient space for your vehicle. Pedestrians have right of way.
Bicycles are allowed only on designated roads (paved, gravel, and dirt) within the park. Off road bicycling, bicycling in the backcountry, or bicycling on hiking trails is prohibited. Bicycle racks are located at the Cedar Pass Lodge and some trailheads. Remember to carry enough water and wear appropriate clothing and sun protection. Be sure to check road conditions, especially gravel and dirt roads. Be alert when riding on all roads.
A part of the Sage Creek Campground is designated for horses. However, no water is suitable for human consumption and horses unaccustomed to badlands water likely will not drink. Bring one gallon per person per day of water and five gallons per horse per day. Feed must be pellets or weed free hay; contact park staff for details. Hitching posts available and horses are not allowed to run free. Picket pins should be moved frequently to prevent overgrazing. Maximum stay is fourteen nights. There are no horse trails.
The Badlands Loop Road offers many overlooks with parking lots. Restroom facilities are located at a few overlooks.
A small overlook of the Red Shirt Table is located south of the village Red Shirt on the Pine Ridge Reservation on Highway BIA 41. This is approximately 30 miles outside of Hermosa, and provides a great view and hike for those who wish to see the Stronghold Unit of the Badlands, which may be ideal for those staying in the Black Hills or Custer State Park who may not be able to travel through the offical loop.
Always carry water. Keep your distance from wildlife, especially bison. If your presence causes a change in behavior, then you are too close.
Refer to the Stay Safe section for more details about exploring the park.
Digging and/or moving fossils or artifacts from their locations in the ground is prohibited by Federal law. Offenders are subject to heavy fines and possibly jail. If you find some fossils or artifacts, note all details, and then stop by the Cedar Pass Contact Station and make a report.
Picnic tables are located near the Cedar Pass Campground. There are also picnic areas at the Journey Overlook and on Conata Road. As usual, no water is available and fires are stricted prohibited.
Located in the Cedar Pass Campground near the Ben Reifel Visitor Center. In the summer months, park rangers give a 40-minute presentation on an aspect of the park.
Water is available at the visitor centers.
Cedar Pass Lodge, (605) 433-5460, . Mid-April through mid-October. The the only permanent lodging within Badlands NP.
There are two campgrounds within the Badlands NP.
Backpackers can camp anywhere in the park that is at least one half mile from the road. Open fires are not permitted within the park. All backpackers are urged to stop at the Ben Reifel Visitor Center, to better plan your trip and to alert the Park Service rangers to your presence.
Nearby towns include:
Nearby monuments and parks in South Dakota include:
Driving west into Wyoming, sites include: